The numbering preceeding each entry is for indexing purposes, started
at 100 to avoid duplication of website chapter indexing. For a
'Reader's Digest' version of articles through 2015, peruse
Each of the following books mentions ERA or UNIVAC or Sperry or UNISYS
while discussing computer history aspects. Many of these are available
at the Charles Babbage Institute on the U of MN campus and a few are
at the Lawshe Memorial Museum reading room.
||High Speed Computing Devices
||Engineering Research Associates, Inc.
||1983 Reprint Series for the History of Computing by
Tomash Publishers. A digital version is available from the Bit
Saver's web site,
linked from our backup convenience folder.
||UNIVAC Products - St Paul A Handbook of Major Products Designed,
Developed, and Manufactured at ST. PAUL 16, MINNESOTA 1947 to
||Product Planning Division
||Remington Rand Univac
December 31, 1959
|Don Weidenbach donated his copy of this book to the Legacy
Committee. The Committee subsequently donated the book to the
Charles Babbage Institute. A committee member scanned the book's
pages and used character recognition software to create a docx
file and a pdf file on a disc which is donated to the Lawshe
Memorial Museum. Lowell updated the original doc file by fixing
the character recognition errors and eliminating white space
of pages between sections. Curt Christensen's copy is at the
Lawshe Memorial Museum. The pdf version is
||A History of Sperry Rand Corporation
||Sperry Rand Publications Department
||Case Study of the Development of the Naval Tactical Data
||R. W. Graf, Research Associate
||United Research Inc., Cambridge, MA
of this document is saved on our URL for researchers.
||HISTORY OF THE UYK-20(V) DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM ACQUISITION
AND ITS IMPACT ON TACTICAL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
||Robert Richardson Joyce
||Naval Postgraduate School
NPS-36J076091, Thanks to George Grey for the pdf file.
||From Dits to Bits
|| This has early computer development from a Blue Bell
||Engineering Research Associates, The Wellspring of Minnesota's
||Communications Department, St. Paul Minnesota
||Booklet created in commemoration of ERA's 40th anniversary.
A scanned electronic
copy was provided by Michael Lins, January 6, 2016. Mike's
father, Ray Lins, worked in plant 1 and his uncle Stan Lins
worked in plant 8.
|| A Few Good Men from UNIVAC
||David E. Lundstrom
||MIT Press; Cambridge, MA
||1997 re-print by Replica Books; Bridgewater, NJ - Mr. Lundstrom
was a UNIVAC employee then a Control Data Employee.
||When Computers Went to Sea - The Digitization of the United
||Capt. David L. Boslaugh
||IEEE Press Order #BP00024
||Chapter 2 of this book is on line at
History and Evolution of 1100/2200 Mainframe Technology
||Richard J. Petschauer
||Copyrightę 1990 Unisys Corporation Printed in U S America
||This paper was prepared in recognition of the 35th anniversary
of USE inc. and was presented at the Fall 1990 Conference in
||Computer: A History of the Information Machine
||Martin Cambell-Kelly and William Aspray
||Computers and Commerce: A study of Technology and Management
at Eckert Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research Associates,
and Remington Rand, 1946-1957
||Dr. A. L. Norberg, Retired CBI Director
Norberg was the original director of the Charles Babbage Institute
at the U of MN, also an initial advisor of the Club's advisory
||A History of the Department of Electrical & Computer
||Edited by James R. Leger
||University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
||Pages 182 through 189 discuss ERA and computer pioneering.
|| Unisys Computers: An Introductory History
you may order this book at
|George T. Gray and Ronald Q. Smith
||The companies that are encompassed within Unisys were among
the pioneers in the field. They rank just behind IBM in the
impact they had in the early years of the computer industry.
Unisys was formed in 1986 by the merger of Burroughs and Sperry,
two companies that had themselves grown through acquisitions
and mergers. The first two U.S. companies to build a computer,
Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation and Engineering Research
Associates, were both acquired by Remington Rand Corporation
(in 1950 and 1951) which, in turn, merged with Sperry in 1956
to become Sperry Rand Corporation.
||The Secret in Building 26, The untold story of America's
ultra war against the u-boat enigma codes
||Jim DeBrosse and Colin Burke
||This book relates the WWII activities of William 'Bill'
Norris, Ralph Meader, and Howard Engstrom who were three of
the four founders of ERA.
||"The Cello Maker" and other stories of the working man.
|| David P. Anderson
||Chandelle Press, second edition
||The sixteenth short story in this book is "The Invention
of Voice Mail", our July 2007 Article for the Month.
||"It Wasn't all Magic: The Early Struggle to Automate Cryptanalysis 1930s- 1960s"
||Center for Cryptology History, National Security Agency,
||Includes the history of Engineering Research Associates,
and some history on CDC, IBM, NCR, Raytheon, and Remington-Rand.
A pdf download of the book: 40 megs/344 pages
http://www.fas.org/irp/nsa/; this has a scrolling html of
||Digital State, The Story of Minnesota's Computer Industry
||Dr. Tom Misa
||University of Minnesota Press
||Drawing on rare archival documents, photographs, and a wealth
of oral histories, Digital State unveils the remarkable
story of computer development in the heartland after World War
II. These decades found corporations—concentrated in large
part in Minnesota—designing state-of-the-art mainframe
technologies, revolutionizing new methods of magnetic data storage,
and, for the first time, truly integrating software and hardware
into valuable products for the American government and public.
Minnesota-based companies such as Engineering Research Associates,
Univac, Control Data, Cray Research, Honeywell, and IBM Rochester
were major international players and together formed an unrivaled
epicenter advancing digital technologies. These companies not
only brought vibrant economic growth to Minnesota, they nurtured
the state’s present-day medical device and software industries
and possibly even tomorrow’s nanotechnology.
||Generation of Wealth, The rise of Control Data and how it
inspired an era of innovation and investment in the Upper Midwest
||Donald M. Hall
5114 Cedar Lake Road, Minneapolis MN 55416
|The TIMELINE before the Contents page begins with 1945,
World War II ends; 1946, Engineering Research Associates (ERA)
formed; ...; and ends with 2009, Medtronic and St. Jude are
industry leaders. In between these dates; the author
blends innovative people, company histories, stock prices, and
personal research into a fascinating, factual story of Control
Data Corporation and the spin off of Cray et al' plus the
evolution of the Medical Technology industry in Minnesota.
LABenson reviewed Don's draft to assure correctness of the ERA
||A History of the Computer Industry: From Relay Computers
to the IBM PC
|paperback via Amazon.com
||The book is a short history of the computer industry, starting
with relay computers and ending with the IBM PC, introduced
in 1981. The book includes two chapters about important people
in the industry, plus a glossary, a bibliography, an index and
BTW, LABenson reviewed the draft in 2013 for accuracy relative to ERA Legacy information.