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Information Technology (IT) Pioneers

Retirees and former employees of Unisys, Lockheed Martin, and their heritage companies

People C-F, Chapter 12

1. Topical Article Contributors

The following 33 people have written 71 items for our Legacy Anthology supplementing the career summaries.

  • Lauren Cady, Dan Carlson, Dr. George Champine, John Champine, Joseph Chapline, Paul Chinitz, Dennis Christ, Curt Christensen, Marwood Clement, Richard Cobold, J. M. Coombs, Tom Coner, Bill Corson, Clinton D. Crosby, and David Cross.
  • Larry Debelak, Gerry Del Fiacco, Anil Deodhar, Gish Devlaminck, Mark DiVecchio, and Mike Doll.
  • Dennis English, Dick Erdrich, Steve Ernst, and Tom Eykyn.
  • Quent Fabro, Les Fairall, Dale Flowers, Andrew Fox, Art Francis, Lyle Franklin, Jim Frazier, and Jacinda Frost.

2. Career Summaries - C

2.1 Greg Casey, 1980 -

   Hello, I ran across your Legacy web site. Although my contributions to the legacy are no where as in-depth as some of the notable people you have on your web-site, I'd appreciate being put on your mailing list.   I was in the Navy from 1972-1977 trained on AN/UYK-7, AN/UYK-20, and DEAC. Spent most of my time at the Fleet Combat Center at Dam Neck doing repairs as a Data Systems Technician. My experience with the AN/UYK-7 was pretty good from a reliability standpoint.

 In 1977, I went back to Iowa State University and finished my Computer Engineering degree. In 1980, I came to work at Plant 8 in Eagan. I worked on fault tolerance designs in the Reliability group for a year or so. Then I work on several Air Force projects including Wild Weasel, B-2 Bomber, and the Advanced Processor. Then I did significant simulation support for the AN/UYK-43 and AN/UYK-44 on the Zycad and IKOS hardware simulation tools.
     I'm currently at Dell developing x86 servers. The server I'm currently working on is capable of 192GB of main memory, we didn't have that much on some tape drives in the Navy.
     Very nice web site, Greg D. Casey Technology Strategist - Office of the CTO at Dell  

2.2 Bob Chappelear

     In 1987 I was looking for a new career as I approached the end of a U.S. Air Force stint of 22 years. At the time I was a “Director Airborne Battle Staff" and a commander with the 7th Airborne Command and Control Squadron stationed at Keesler Air Force Base Mississippi. Like most other pilots I was assuming that I would go to a major airline and had acquired both Flight Engineer and Airline Transport Pilot Ratings and was in the process of interviews with American Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Airlines, Cessna Jet Aviation, and was scheduled for an interview with Northwest Airlines. A friend of mine, named Major Marty Winters was involved in the initial requirements definition process for a replacement program for the Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC). Marty was about to attend a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with Sperry (this was just before the merge with Burroughs to become Unisys) in the frigid northland called Minneapolis, Minnesota. On a whim I gave him a copy of my resume, thinking that a large corporation like this would have an aviation department and might need a new corporate pilot, and asked that he give it to the head of the personnel. Imagine my surprise when Marty returned with a business card and said, “Call this guy – they want to talk to you about ABCCC.” Three days later I was on an airplane to Eagan, Minnesota for an interview. I was introduced to quite a crew of people. There was John Nygaard, Larry Debelak, Harry Fager, Mike Doll, Rich Howie, Al Medor, Ken Pearson, and the infamous 'Ole’ Olson. I was later told that the original interview was to evaluate me for a potential marketing role and I didn’t come across very well in that light. Gee, that doesn’t surprise me much. A week or so later Larry Debelak, Ole Olson, et' al had cause to reevaluate my background and it was decided that perhaps there was a spot in the ABCCC program as a system engineer. Unisys made a job offer on the next Monday morning and by Friday I had submitted my retirement papers, completed out-processing, received commander’s permission for “off-duty employment”, was on “terminal leave”, and headed by car to Eagan. I arrived on Sunday the Fourth of July, watched the fireworks that evening and since Monday was a company holiday, I sat on my thumbs in the hotel for an additional day. At 0800 on Tuesday morning the Sixth of July I reported to Jim Madigan at the corner of Pilot Knob and I-494 where upon my entering the Human Resources Department Jim hollers, “Sign this – you’re hired! Come on there are people waiting for you downstairs”. He took me to the big conference room of what we used to call the “Crystal Palace” and I looked around at a room full of people that was comprised of 1/3 Unisys, 1/3 MITRE, and 1/3 my old crew from Keesler AFB. It turns out that there was another TIM going on that day and according to my new boss Ken Pearson, I was the official UNISYS note taker while he figured out what else to do with me.

The ABCCC Years (1987 – 2002) ABCCC Down-select / Demonstration Contract
     The first 18 months or so of my career with the Unisys/PARAMAX/Unisys/Loral/Lockheed Martin team was spent competing for, and winning the ABCCC development contract. The ABCCC program required the winner to perform as prime contractor in the design and development of a replacement system for the USAF Tactical Air Command (TAC) which is now called Air Combat Command (ACC).  The ABCCC was a 47 foot long “capsule” that fit into the cargo bay of a modified EC-130E aircraft.  This capsule housed up to a 15 person crew of intelligence, communications, controller, and qualified command operators.  ABCCC did not act as an air traffic control system, nor did they act as an air intercept controller platform.  Instead ABCCC was a true “Command and Control” platform with responsibilities for force assignment and tasking.  To perform this task ABCCC has an extremely robust communications suite which covered HF, VHF-FM, VHF-AM, UHF, and SATCOM frequency bands.  The system provided voice and data communications with U.S. and coalition air, land, and naval forces.  This was done with 23 mission radios. (The capsule radios were independent from the aircraft radios.)  This system also required an extremely agile intercommunications and communications switching system capable of assigning (or denying) access of any of the 23 radios to any of or any combination of the 15 crewmembers.  Furthermore, each operator needed a workstation providing graphic and textual access to situation displays and database information.  There was also a history recording and playback capability and mission equipment control and monitoring capability to ensure that each operational mission could be completed in spite of potential equipment malfunctions.  During this time my major responsibilities included translating from “Air Force Speak” to “Engineer Speak”, development of technical specifications, development of the mission planner, mapping support station, development of world wide vector map data base, and finally development of the demonstration scenario.  By serving as a Air Force to Engineer translator I mean that I would work with the software developers and explain what it mean to “Weapon-Pair”, to “Task”, and to “scramble” or “divert”.  I even on occasion was called to translate in the opposite direction.  For instance, at the negotiations with the customer and the contracting authority there was a discussion of the customer required hard copy printers to be used in the capsule.  During an elaboration of the capabilities of the printer I pointed out that should the received message exceed the printers 80 column capability the line would be truncated at the 81st character.  The Air Force communications system operator (who used to be on my crew) seating directly opposite from me at the table looked at me kind of quizzically, turned his head to the chief Air Force negotiator and said, “That’s Ok with us.”  During the next coffee break, that individual ambled over close to me and when no one else could hear he whispered into my ear, “What does truncated mean?”  Anyway we must have done something right for during the demonstration when we gave the Air Force observer/operators the opportunity to set at the crew consoles and to work with the demonstration hardware/software they were thrilled and a remark between operators was even recorded over the intercommunications system that went to the effect that “This is exactly what we want, - it works just like we want it to,- why don’t we just buy this?”  We then had to spend some effort explaining that this was only demonstration software and even though we had demonstrated 95% of the defined system requirements it would take a development contract to get the other 5% of requirements incorporated as well as making the system as robust as possible.

ABCCC Development Contract
     The down-select and demonstration contracts for ABCCC were hectic times and we all thought that the development contract would be a time of relative peace.  We were wrong.  Not only were we working to a tight development schedule but there was also the responsibilities of a prime contractor in the development of a new shelter sometimes called a capsule, environmental control units (ECU), world wide coverage vector map database, and mapping support station.  The shelter subcontractor was NORDAM a shelter manufacturer based in Oklahoma.  They proposed a shelter to us that was comprised of honeycomb material sandwiched between thin sheets of aluminum.  This shelter was 47 feet in length, about 11 feet wide and about 8 feet tall except for where the galley and latrine were in an elevated section at the tail of the capsule.  This section of the capsule was raised at and angle to conform to the up-sloping cargo ramp of the aircraft.  The shelter had to interface to aircraft electricity, aircraft intercommunications system, oxygen supply system, communication antennas, specialized heat exchanger pods, and relief tubes.  An interesting side story to the design of the capsule by NORDAM centers around their initial put that the capsule would be 11 inches taller in the rear than the existing capsule.  I was quite confused about how this could be since I knew from experience that the existing capsule was a very tight fit into the EC-130E cargo bay.  I mentioned this to Leroy Olson, the Unisys project mechanical engineer and when the USAF sent an EC-130E with capsule from Keesler AFB here to Twin Cities Air Reserve Base, Leroy and I were waiting for the aircraft to arrive.  We each had a tape measure in hand.  As the aircraft cargo door was raised and the cargo ramp was lowered we looked at the existing capsule and each other.  We looked at our tape measures and knew that we didn't need them for it was obvious that there was no way that the new capsule could be any taller than the existing one.  Immediately upon our return to the office we called NORDAM and insisted that they remove the proposed extra 11 inches and use the exact same height as the existing capsule.  The engineers in Oklahoma wanted to argue but finally said, “OK – you’re the prime!”  They changed their plans and later when they saw their first manufactured capsule slip into the aircraft cargo bay with less than 2 inches of clearance all the way around they admitted to having made a mistake.  They then realized that they had failed to provide for the fact that the raised cargo door was lower than the ceiling of the cargo bay and interfered with inserting and extracting the capsule.  Another subcontractor with whom we interfaced was David Brown and Associates (actually known as DBA) of Melbourne Fl.  DBA came to us with software mapping experience and through them we developed the world’s first vector map database.  This ABCCC vector map database actually preceded WDB II by about 12 months and this ABCCC system set many standards, formats and protocols for WDB II.  The inclusion of a mapping support station was also a first for USAF systems.  This allowed the users to prepare pixel maps for use in the capsule.  These pixel maps were scaled and registered to the area of interest and thus map symbology that was registered to the vector map was also registered to the pixel maps. This system was actually quite versatile and could be used to create maps from reconnaissance photos, either from aircraft or from satellites.
     While this subcontractor interface was ongoing, at home we were developing software, designing databases, writing test plans, preparing for “stuffing the capsules”, and developing contractor type I training programs.  The program progressed normally for any development but when we got to the contractor type I training we had an unusual occurrence.  It was during the fall of 1990 when a guy by the name of George H. W. Bush was President of the United States and another guy by the name of Saddam Hussain decided that he wanted a little country by the name of Kuwait to be part of his Iraq.  We were in the second week of training the second crew in the use of the new equipment when the crew commander returned from a break and announces that “Class is finished – We’ve just been alerted for deployment to Saudi Arabia.”  That specific crew got as reprieve in that they stayed in the States long enough to put the capsule through Operational Test & Evaluation before acceptance but just as soon as that was done the capsule and the crew were deployed to Saudi.  In actuality the first two capsules (out of 8) were deployed to Saudi and the two trained crews flew multiple combat missions with the new hardware and conducted On-the-Job training of other Air Force crew members while deployed.  The system never failed and every tasked mission was accomplished on schedule.  We also deployed two of our employees with the squadron.  They were Fred Swenson (software engineer) and Jim Hendrickson (field engineer).  They were deployed for the entire time that any of the new capsules were in theater and one of the two of them flew on every mission.  Fred can claim to be the only combat software engineer in the company.
     During this entire development program the ABCCC office along with several marketing persons were involved in preplanned program improvements and also chasing other opportunities.  For instance we somehow or another ended up being selected by the Royal Saudi Air Force as the contractor for establishing and supporting a “Air Ground Operations School” and later enlarging that program.  We hired and deployed 10 individuals to King Kahlid Air Base, Khamis Mushayt, Saudi Arabia where for three years they created this school.  After the initial two years the scope of the school was expanded but some of the staff said that no they had enough of the land of the sand and wished to return to the US.  The personal impact that this created was related to the “deal” that our program office made with the RSAF in that if a substitute staff member was needed that staff member would be ME!  So I got to spend close to four months in Saudi while a search for a suitable staff member was conducted back here in the States.  While in the USAF I had spent three years in Viet Nam, three years in England, and six years in Germany.  From my four months in Saudi my respect for the guys that spent three and five years there went way up.  While deployed to Saudi myself, the ABCCC program came to an end and I knew before returning to the states that I was being transferred to the CVN-77 program.

The Navy Years

Between 2002 and my retirement in 2006 I was associated with multiple navy programs specifically in relation to communications.  I worked closely with John Pernic, Bob Dubrall, Greg Schneider et' al. on such proposals/programs as the Australian Air Warfare Destroyer, the Littoral Combat Ship, and Presidential Helicopter. The only Air Force related program on which I worked during this period was as a sub contractor to Lockheed Martin – Owego on the Multi Mission Command and Control Aircraft (MMCA).  There too, we were considered to be the communications experts and originally the communications team members.  During this entire four year period we were continually serving as sub-contractors or supporting team members rather than as the prime contractor. There is a vast difference in being a prime and a sub with a starring role being far superior to a supporting one.   

2.3 Dennis Christ, 1967 to 2000

I joined Univac out of the Navy in April, 1967 (I was a P-2 Pilot.) Charlie Whitten joined at the same time I did. We worked in Clyde Allen’s software development group. I knew nothing about computers or software so Will Branning was assigned as my mentor/tutor for the first six months.  We spent those six months in the old Plant 7 on the corner of Larpenteur and 280 in St. Paul. Then in October of ’67 we were one of the first groups to move into the new headquarters building on Pilot Knob Road in Eagan.  I was part of a group of developers working on new compiler and operating system software.  I especially remember the talent of people like Cherie Bjustrom and Phil Schwarz, along with many others.  In 1968 to 1970 I was part of the team developing a real-time operating system for new UYK-7. This was the first attempt [at least that I’m aware of] to develop an operating system using fully re-entrant code, allowing a variable number of processors all working in a system allowing ease of memory and I/O expansion.  It was an exciting project with lots of challenges.  The disputes between those of us developing the software and the hardware engineers raged on and on throughout the two years of development.  Dick Olson was our project leader, but the team included Tom Sinkula and all those he talked about in his bio.
     After completing this effort I continued to work with the existing operating system software group until October of 1971 when I took what was supposed to be an 18 month assignment in Germany. My wife, Ann, and our two young sons, moved to Wilhelmshaven, Germany to work with the German Navy at their Command and Control Systems operation. Our team included Tom Kratz, Bill Rogers, John Rachac, Jim Gannon, Lowell Benson, Dick Lundgren, and others, all working under the able guidance of Ernie Lantto who ran the engineering side of the European office in Bonn, Germany. Lee Dominick was the General Manager who kept everything going. He and his wife, Tiny, were the head of the Univac “family” in Europe and did a great job of taking care of all of us while we struggled with the challenges of living in Germany. They had the best of all secretaries in Irene Teutrin, who made sure everything went smoothly and who took care of all the little things needed to make life go on as we interacted with the local German economy.
     After two years in northern Germany I moved to Bonn to be marketing support to the sales team there. The team included Phil Powers, Pierre Iskos, Ernie Lantto, and others. After Lee Dominick moved back to the US, Roland Britton took over for a year or so before moving to Tehran, Iran to head up the office there. Gary Humfelt then ran the office until 1976 when Chuck Hammond took over. I moved back to Eagan to take a position as Program Manager for European programs, which gave me the opportunity to travel back to Europe regularly over the next four years. The program management team was being run by Jerry Meyer, then John Vold, and later Jim Stahley took over the group. In 1980 I moved back to Bonn to be the Sales Manager for Europe. Late in 1981 John Spearing offered me the job of Sales Manager for the Navy computer business, back in Eagan, as we began the effort and later won the contracts for the UYK-43 and UYK-44 programs.
     In November of 1984 I left Sperry Univac to work for GE in their Undersea Systems Group in Syracuse, New York. Four years later, after Sperry and Burroughs had merged to form UNISYS, I met Al Zettlemoyer who, along with Clyde Allen, convinced me to return to Unisys. I returned as Director of Navy Systems, and then was promoted to Vice President of Navy Systems in 1990. Fred Jenny was the President of the Unisys Defense Group. In 1992, Al Zettlemoyer was promoted to VP of Strategic Planning at Unisys headquarters in Blue Bell, PA, and I was promoted to President of Electronic Systems. I felt honored and privileged to be given the opportunity to manage the division that I had started with 25 years earlier. In late 1994, Unisys decided to sell the Defense Group. I was offered the position of VP of Airline Systems in Blue Bell, which I took.  The Defense Group was sold and later became part of Lockheed Martin.
     I spent the next seven years, until my retirement in November 2000, as President of the Airline Systems group in Blue Bell. This was also an interesting and challenging assignment. Beginning in the early 1970’s Unisys had established great relationships with nearly all the major international airlines. Our challenge was to grow our business with each of these clients and to identify new areas of the transportation market into which we could grow. It was an exciting business, with way too much travel, but a great way to complete my career with Unisys.
     After a brief period of consulting, my wife and I moved to Red Lodge, Montana - where one of our sons owns  became a  a large, busy restaurant. We are involved in that, but have lots of time to travel and vacation as we choose.   {Editor's Note: His son Peter later entered Luther Seminary and then became the Lead Pastor at Prince of Peace Lutheran in Rosevile, MN. - Lowell Benson is a member there. SMALL WORLD!}

2.4 'C.P.' Chuck Covington [1960 - 89]

I am a retired Unisys employee (1989) from the Univac side of the merger.  As background: 1960-1972 Federal Systems Division, Washington D. C.

1972 - 1989 Various commercial marketing divisions based in Blue Bell, PA

Programmed the 1103A/1103AS/1105 & 490 series

After that, I gravitated to management. I am enjoying Legacy. I was introduced to it by a fellow retired FSD colleague, Mike Williams. I offer a couple of tidbits that may be of interest to the history:

In the early 1960’s Univac was trying to support three major mainframes- Univac III, Univac 490 and Univac 1107. The Univac 490 was known as the “Real Time” computer. There were strong positions in favor of the 490 series to replace the 1100 but the 1100 prevailed. That was also the period of strong debate over which operating system to go forward with for the 1100 series. I was a member of the FSD task force that was sent to CSC to evaluate Exec II. Our recommendation was to stay with Exec I. See how much we knew!

Ron Q’s customer list brought back lots of memories. There weren’t that many customers and USE was a small group so everyone knew everyone. In Ron’s list is 1103A-18 sold to the Army Signal Corp, Washington, D.C. I am pretty certain that the Signal Corp was the cover name for the computer that was part of the Executive Office of the President relocation of the Executive Office to an underground hardened site in Virginia.  The system was upgraded to the 1103AS-37.  The EOP was my customer.  The 1103AS- 36 sold to the U.S. Army Hercules Powder was the back up system for the EOP system.  I was dispatched to the site to teach the programmers.  The site & its use were classified but I went into town one day for a haircut and the barber informed me that I must be one of those fellows working on that secret computer that the Army just installed.

The articles and history are bring back lots of memories from my times visiting Plant 1 and Roseville with prospects.   

2.5 David E. Cross [1976 -

I first used computers in high school (1962-65). After CDC bought the Bendix computer division they gave away some of the old computers including a G-15 that came to Hopkins High School. Several of us shared use of it for about any task we wanted. The room air conditioning was such that we often opened a door to the roof to get the room cool enough. We used 3 variations on the Intercom programming language (Intercom 500, 550 & 1000). These would be viewed as machine language by some people since they were entirely numeric based, but they actually were translated/interpreted to the machine language. Intercom 550 allowed some basic text handling, 500 & 1000 were strictly decimal. The G-15 used a hexadecimal that was t-z instead of the more known a-f or 10-15. The G-15 drum resulted in relatively slow computation and we were never given sufficient information to use things like minimum access programming to speed things up.

Also in high school a developer from Fabritek who was also a teacher at Minnetonka East Junior High [where my mother taught] brought in the original hand wired (on perf board) Bi-Tran 6 and taught several of us computer fundamentals. The Bi-Tran 6 had 128 6-bit bytes of memory and one could single step or cycle the system watching the data flow through. There were 4 large perf boards one with the small core memory in one corner. Later in the Navy (1968) I used the production version on “real” printed circuit boards.

In 1967 after 2 years of college chemistry I joined the Navy Fleet Ballistic Missile program as an enlisted navigation repair person. There I worked on Sperry NAVDAC and CP 890 computers and primarily the North American Rockwell Autonetics Verdan and Mardan navigation computers.

NAVDAC was a drum main memory 24-bit computer that by the time I worked on it also had 512 words of core memory. The instructions automatically looked four words ahead for the next instruction to limit extra drum revolutions. The PC boards had a small number of transistors mounted in “rubber” mounts to limit problems.
CP-890 was basically a 490 series computer in one 19 inch rack with a square root function added.

Verdan and Mardan were 24-bit disk main memory computers. I think the Verdan was originally for the Navaho missile system. Mardan was an upgraded Verdan design with significantly more memory and some other improvements. The Mardan had about 14,000 diodes, 7,000 transistors, and 5,000 words of disk main memory. They had special DDA (Digital Differential Analyzer) circuits to help with the stable platform calculations. These DDA’s were actually better than many later systems for computing certain types of real time data. They allowed parallel solving of the navigation problem with control operations. Each instruction included the address of the next instruction to allow for efficient programs.

From 1974-1976, I finished a Computer Science degree at the U of MN.

In March 1976 I joined Sperry UNIVAC Roseville operations where I worked in the symbiont area for Pat Corbet. This was when OS 1100 was moving from level 31 to level 32 (basically not released) and then level 33 with its new IO, file and scheduling rewrites. A few of us in the IO group were isolated over in building 1 with manufacturing. During this period I wrote sections of the boot routines and indriv initialization in addition to parts of the print and card reader code. In the early 80s we developed the new print drivers that incorporated the 777 Laser printer capabilities and ran as user programs. When the symbionts were moved to Blue Bell I transferred to the CAD software group. At one point there was a new card punch (606) that we coded for and one customer noticed the code and tried to order one even though they were never manufactured.

I was outsourced along with the CAD Group in 1995 to Cadence Design Systems where I remained till retiring.     

2.6 Dr. George Champine, 1956-1979

Dr. Champine early biography was the October 2012 'Our Stories. Submitted to Lowell Benson by his brother John Champine.
His first project was the 2052 Airborne Computer in conjunction with Seymore Cray. There was a 2052 simulator running on the 1103.  In 1957 he returned to the University to work on his Master's degree.  In 1958 he came back to UNIVAC to work on the NIKE-Zeus project.  He spent time at White Sands in New Mexico. 

In 1970, George transferred to the Commercial division of UNIVAC. While there in 1979 he wrote chapter 3 of a book to be entitled "Spery Univac-The First Computer Company.  That chapter was found by Keith Myhre in the archives of the Hagley museum.  This chapter tells the story of the ERA formation and describes in detail the 1101 (ATLAS), the  1103/1105, 1103A, and the UNIVAC File Computer.   Chapter 3 - Sperry-UNIVAC, the first computer company.   

3. Career Summaries - D

3.1 Keith Burton Davis

I was employed by Remington Rand Univac in 1961 following my graduation from South Dakota School of Mines and Technology with a BSEE degree in 1961. This employment continued until shortly after I received a Juris Dr. degree from William Mitchell college of law in 1967 and included "creating" and administering the commercial patents liaison function. This evening I learned of this activity from a cousin, William (Bill) Madden, who worked for many years at the Eagan facility. For me at least, my first employment was like a first love, and I still enjoy telling people my computer background goes back to 1961. Perhaps it is already covered somewhere, but I didn't run across a direct statement crediting Eckert and Mauchley with being issued the very first computer patent. [It was, of course, assigned to their company and its successors.] Unfortunately, the patent was declared invalid for procedural reasons. The application was probably filed and "prosecuted" in Philadelphia. Tom Nikolai was head of the Eagan Patent Department during the time of my employment and the last I heard he was in private practice in the Mpls. - St. Paul area. He would likely be a great resource for particulars about the patent and the lawsuit.

Lowell – November 19, 2008. You may use the tidbit.
I shouldn't have spent as much time on this as I did, and it is almost a virtual certainty my priorities shall never change, thus my comment about Tom Nikolai as a contact for further information. Also, there are probably others in the area with better knowledge of this subject than mine. Forgive my geezer memory, at the moment only first names come to mind. One is Al, {Editor’s note: Will Branning} and he was the mayor of a southern suburb, it might have been Apple Valley. The other was Charles or Chuck, and he went into private patent law practice in
Thank you for opening the possibility of membership {Editor’s note: VIP Club}, but for the moment at least it is best I pass on that, too.
Incidentally, for anyone you might contact, they would know me as Keith Davis. These internet memory-saving sites which are sans a middle name data field have caused me to adopt K Burton as a first name in such instances. Keith B. Davis/Pony Tail  

3.2 Michael Doll,

Over the past thirty years I have seen many extraordinary things happen in both technical and political terms.  Central Processor Unit (CPU) speeds that were reserved for Cray super computers are now in hand-held devices.  A GByte disk space which at one time would cost a quarter of a million dollars and take up an entire room now is too cheap and small to even bother counting.  The Soviet Union, which was the head of a hostile alliance, is no more and now many of the Warsaw pact countries belong to NATO.  What a marvelously interesting time to live.
     But the single most memorable (and emotional) event I have experienced while working for Lockheed Martin was on and immediately after September 11, 2001.  At the time I was doing a one week ASOC Air Policing system install and formalization class in Sofia Bulgaria.  James (JD) Griffis (at the time the Bulgarian and resident Lockheed Martin ASOC field engineer) and his wife Elizabeth had kindly invited me out to one of his favorite restaurants.  JD and I had completed our work a bit early that day; I had planned to go back to the hotel and go out for a walk around Sofia before we went to dinner later that night.  Being a bit of a news junkie, I turned on CNN to catch up on the latest news.  Much to my shock, the news was about a plane striking one of the World Trade Center towers.
     At this point the speculation was still that it may have been a horrible accident and although I did momentarily consider the possibility of a hijacker deliberately crashing the plane into the building, it seemed too outrageous to be the most likely explanation.  Then, about ten minutes after I started watching, all doubt was removed when a second plane rammed into the second tower.  Of course, I, just like everyone else in the world, could not stop watching.  I don’t have to describe the emotional impact to anyone that witnessed the events and I can’t adequately explain it to anyone who didn’t.
     The next morning I received a note from the Hotel management (which I still have) that expressed the Hotel management’s sympathy and concern.  It seems that every American in the hotel got one.  When I got to the base the site commander asked me into his office.  He apologized for an imperfect command of English and did his best to express his and his command’s support.  His words may not have been eloquent, but his gestures and manners were. He suggested that if it was too much for us he would understand if I felt that I should return home or at least take the day off.  Air traffic was tied up for days and there was no way to get home early, so there was not much else that could be done other than continue on with the trip and complete the rest of the week’s training.
     For the rest of the week, each day after work I of course watched a lot of news on CNN and BBC.  French papers were saying “We are all Americans”; the “Star Spangled Banner” played at the changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace.  Flowers were laid by ordinary citizens in front of U.S. embassies (even in Iran), and European cities (including Sofia) stopped for “three minutes of silence”.
     I doubt that many people who were in the United States at that time understand the deep degree of sympathy and concern people in other countries had for us during this time, not just at an official level, but also at the personal level.  This was demonstrated to me one evening in Sofia.  I went out for a walk around the Old Town and found myself gravitating toward a very ancient Greek Orthodox Church.  People seemed to be wandering in and out of the church at a rate rather higher than I would have expected at this time of night, but there didn’t seem to be any organized services.  I approached the church intending to just walk around the outside, and look through he door to see what was going on.  As I was standing near the steps leading to the door, I noticed an elderly, classical grandmotherly-looking lady standing on the steps.  At first I thought she was a beggar, not uncommon around Eastern Europe churches.  I remember being a bit embarrassed at my initial suspicions when I noticed that, rather then approaching with her palms up in the universal gesture of begging, she send to be gesturing for me to enter the church speaking in a low voice with sad tones.  The only think I thought I understood was “American?” to which I nodded my head.  That seem to intensify her insistence that I enter.  I stood still for a few moments, somewhat confused and hesitant to intrude on some ritual that I would likely not understand or be able to participate in properly. But my curiosity and the ladies persistence eventually won out.  She showed obvious pleasure when I entered.
     In the church I saw a large platform in the middle of the church where hundreds of candles were burning, some with notes indicating they were lit for the victims of 9/11.  A few people kept coming to light new candles.  I bought and lit two candles myself (one for each tower) and stood around for a few minutes saying a private prayer and watching others do the same.  Seeing these very ordinary Bulgarians share in our grief was quite moving and unforgettable.
When I left the church the lady was still there waving people in.  I have no idea how (or really even if) she knew I was an American.  But East Europeans seem to be able to spot us by our clothing, the way we walk, our city maps in English, and our generally confused look.  I really can only image what she said.  But I believed (as is appropriate in church) that this lady, from another generation and another country which was not long ago a cold war adversary, was doing what she could to show me that she any her countrymen were sorry for what had happened and were praying for us.  I regret not stopping and trying to thank her for that.   

3.3 Jim Donaldson

 I just discovered your great site.  From 1960 to 1964 I was an enlisted Data Systems Technician in the Navy, working with the NTDS system.  From August 1962 to September 1964, I was a computer and peripherals maintenance instructor at the NTDS school at Mare Island.  The school shared systems and lab space with the test center used for testing the NTDS system.  Part of my training before going to Mare Island was to spend January to July of 1962 at UNIVAC Plant 2 learning about the NTDS computer and the peripherals built by UNIVAC (System Maintenance Panel, Keyset Central, etc).  The classes were held in a room near an operating File Computer.
     As the date approached for my discharge from the Navy, I applied to Univac (among others) for a job.  Dave Kolling interviewed me at my desk at Mare Island.  I remember Dave saying that the department had so much work that he "didn't know what to take next out of the in-basket."  I accepted an offer to join the NTDS development department as a programmer.  At that time, I didn't have a degree and might have been the only non-degreed person in the department.  But I knew the hardware inside out and I knew how to program in CS-1.
     I worked at plant 5, then at the new plant 8, under Matt Schreifels for four years.  I wrote routines for what I think was called the Service Test System; some in the operational program, others such as for the DDSOT program (which I think meant Daily Digital System Operational Test). And, I helped write some proposals and other miscellaneous things.
     Of course, I frequently revisited Mare Island to debug my programs.  During that time and my Navy time there, I met a number of memorable people including Don Woodard, a Univac field engineer, and Jim Raja and Ming Chang, Naval officers.  While I was still in the Navy, Jim Raja came to me and asked if, in my spare time, I could write him a program to create a printout giving altitude above the earth at various ranges and elevation angles, taking into account the earth's curvature.  I wrote the program and printed the results on a line printer in one of the trailers parked alongside the school building.  I was thrilled to be asked to write a "real" program for the Navy.  I think he used he information when, on weekends, he would stand in the (Hughes) display console room and observe tests of the SPS-48 radar tracking aircraft sent up from Alameda Air Station for that purpose.
     Here's a Ming Chang story.  One day I saw him just as he arrived at the test center at Mare Island after driving up from the San Francisco airport.  He said he had been coming through San Francisco in the left lane of Intestate 80 when the traffic in his lane suddenly slowed down.  He slammed on his brakes and watched in his rear view mirror as the car behind him locked its wheels, did a 360-degree skid, ended up in the empty center lane, and zipped past Ming.
     My time with the Navy and NTDS and Univac was a wonderful introduction to my computer career.  I remember with affection all the people I worked with.  A few years ago, I met Roger Gardner at my church and learned that he helped design the power supply for the AN/USQ-20.  I was thrilled to meet someone who so long ago worked on the same computer that I did.  In 1968, I went to Control Data where I held a variety of positions during an 18-year stay.  For the last 20 years, my wife and I have operated a two-person consulting company, developing personal computer database systems for clients.  I greet all the familiar names I see in your pages.  Thank you for your efforts to recall that fascinating time.    

3.4 Hank Dotzler, clock #21364

My career with UNISYS started at the Shepard Road facility.  At that time, the company was known as UNIVAC.
I was attending Brown Institute for Industrial Electronics and Computer Programming.  This was a 120 week course, three nights per week.  The total time for the course was 1440 hours.  The director of Brown knew I was unemployed at the time and suggested that I should see Gordon Bourne from Personnel, for an opening in Advanced Manufacturing Techniques (AMT).  The position was for a Grade B Test Technician in loop testing.
     I was hired on November 15, 1965, reporting to Don Eyberg, who was the manager of AMT.  Mr. Eyberg reported to Richard Yost, who was the Director of Nike X.  My job was to test glass substrates for the magnetic parameters, to insure proper operation in the 1230 computer.  I also helped the various engineers in their performance testing of the prototype models.
     A funny thing happened in the AMT deposition Lab, during a Bell Labs VIP visit, they were the prime contractor for the project.  The test we performed, was being witnessed by the host Richard Yost and the Bell Labs guests.  During the test run, the wire feed motor was squeaking, which irritated Mr. Yost.  He yelled out to me saying "Hank, can you feed those chickens."  Needless to say, this broke the ice and there was abundant laughter by all!
     My tenure with AMT lasted until December 1967 - because of a lack of work, two engineers and six technicians were to be laid off or transferred.  I would soon be graduating from Brown so I wasn't too worried about a job.  I transferred into the Metrology department on January 1, 19068 just before my February graduation from Brown Institute.
     UNIVAC had been good to me and my family.  They paid all of my tuition at Brown, and allowed the Military leave with the Air National Guard.  I felt like I was part of the family, so why leave?  I spent the next 11 years in Metrology working in calibration and repair of test equipment - by 1978 this had become too much routine.
     In mid 1978, I transferred into Factory Support working for Bill Kircher.  This job was a little more challenging, but the split shift routine was hampering my home life so I began to look for a transfer.
     In November 1980 I transferred to the Engineering department at the Eagan facility.  I reported to LeRoy Vick, who was the senior EE in power supply design.  This engineering department reporting to Gene Geisz included Environmental Testing in Plant 2, located at Prior and Minnehaha - where ERA had started.  My job with Mr. Vick was to complete the design on the Bus Access Module (BAM) for a Canadian Navy project.  I also was in charge of the thermal Lab, which was used by the various Engineers testing sensors, etc..
     In early 1982, I was asked to transfer to plant 2 becoming a part of the Environmental Test Group, still under Gene Geisz' management.  We did all the formal testing for purchased Navy computers, the Navy paid for the tests.  Being up at Midway, was at first depressing.  Perhaps it was the extra drive of 14 miles in city traffic or just the dismal atmosphere of the old drafty glider factory owned by the U.S. Navy!  It was difficult to understand what I'd been sent to Plant 2 to do.  I wasn't at all busy for the first few weeks, so I volunteered to do whatever was necessary to keep busy.  The Shock Vibration Lab need help testing computer fans, so I helped Bill Hammond whenever I could.  Suddenly it became apparent why I was needed up at Midway.  Cost proposals began to arrive, and I was selected to be broken on on those tasks.  At first proposals seemed strange and bewildering.  But, after a while I began to really enjoy this type of work.  I then decided to pursue getting a BA degree from Metro State University.  After working on proposals for 2 years, I became account manager for the Environmental testing of the Trident II.  Little did I realize that I would be asked to speak to 60 persons at Eagan (many were directors.)  I didn't sleep too well the night before!  This was beginning to be fun!
     Things were beginning to really get busy.  The Navy assigned both IBM and UNIVAC to develop the UYK-43 and the UYK-44 computers.  The feeling was that UNIVAC would be lucky to get one or the other.  Well, the celebrations began when UNIVAC won both development contracts!  It was an evening of gala celebration at the Lost Spur Country Club with the finest of food and drink for all.  Then Dick Seaberg (St. Paul VP) went up to the podium.  Mr. Seaberg first removed his suit coat, then off came the tie and vest.  Next, her removed his shirt - - most were wondering if he was going to show off a hairy chest.  But, when his tee shirt displayed UYK-43 on the front and UYK-44 on the back the puzzle was solved.
     The next few years were busy, but also brought change - A buyout by Burroughs to form the new company, UNISYS.  I took advantage of an early retirement package in 1989 then finished my BA degree from Metro State in 1990.  I have never been sorry or the early retirement decision, still have a fond affection for UNIVAC and all the fine people with whom I had the opportunity to work.   

3.5 Dave Duncan, 1962 - 1994

You and the Legacy Team have done a wonderful job. It will take me quite awhile to read all of your web site. I don't have any data or trinkets.  I do have a couple copies of the serial 1000 brochure if you want one.  There was a short movie on the UYK-7 showing the construction and some of the systems it was used on like DD-963 Trident etc.  It had some missile shots in it.  We received clearance to show it at celebrations for either Serial 500 or 1000.  I forgot which.  You may be able to find it if there are any archives in the Plant-8 photo lab.  The UYK-7 met some impressive shock, vibration and temperature environments while operating.  I remember we measured 200+ G during the shock test at Northern Ordnance.  I don't remember if it faulted during the shock and rebooted or if it ran continuously but it met the requirements either way. I think it was a first computer to pass that test without a waiver.

As you may recall I was a long time associate on the UYK-7 starting as lead mechanical engineer on the proposal and design, then project engineer, then program manager. Harry Morrison took my place when I replaced Don Dunn as Navy Products Program Manager. After the Desert Storm war the contracts went in the tank and as part of the reorganization I was replaced by Phil Schwartz and I was assigned as Spares Program Manager until I took an early out 4/30/93 and retired 2/1/94 after 32 years.

As I recall our paths crossed on some projects during time at Univac / Unisys.   

3.6 Larry Debelak [1966-2008]

I had a 43 year career with Lockheed Martin and heritage companies. This is summarized in a 2015 paper, click here.

3.7 Ghislain 'Gish' Devlaminck, 1975-2011

After high school, I went to a tech school to learn about two-way radios and got a job climbing radio towers. The highest one was 1,250 feet.
  In 1968, I joined the U.S. Navy, I was an avionics tech who fixed radio, Identification Friend or Foe (IFF), and navigation systems. The Navy got me a free electrical engineering degree, including an internship in the arctic with the Office of Naval Research Skyhook 74 project launching, tracking and recovering high-altitude research balloons.
After graduating from college at the age of 27, UNIVAC hired me. When I interviewed at Plant 8 in Eagan, MN, Pilot Knob Road and Yankee Doodle Road were two-lane tar roads with a grass ditch on each side. I worked on projects at Plant 8, Shepard Road, and Midway. These included TERPES, MATCALS, ABCCC, AYK-14, B2, VIPS and many other projects. After over 35 years, the plant closed, and I was offered a job in Owego, NY.  Being over 60, I decided that a move to New York was not a good choice.
I’m staying out of trouble by keeping busy with my history projects, being a VFW officer, and being the membership manager on the VIP Club Board. Gish
{Editor's note: See Our Stories #266, #276, and #289.}

4. Career Summaries - E

4.1 Allan Edwards,

I'm an ex-Univac employee - worked on UFC Model I {Editor’s note: Univac File Computer (UFC)} then the 1107 and 1108. I was in Technical Liaison for the UFC-I, a systems programmer for the 1107 and went into Product Marketing for the 1108. I just ran across your website and notice Lyle Franklin's picture of his 1957 field service class, including some guys I know like Sherrill Milner [he was the Engineer In Charge (EIC) at Conde Nast, Boulder CO where I was in charge of installing their second File Computer System].
I don't know how to reach Lyle but I have a picture [somewhere] of the class he taught before that. I'd be happy to find it and send it to him if I could get his email address.
Gosh, your VIP site brings back a lot of memories. I never realized there was anything so complete about the company that contributed so much to computing. Thanks so much. Allan

Dear Allan - November 15, 2008:
Although I had a few classes I only had the one picture which included Sherrill. As I remember he had just purchased a black 58 Chevy possibly a hardtop which he showed off to the rest of the class. The class was a mix of field engineers and Quality Control (QC). The field engineers were in Ed La Fluer's group and the QC's reported to Bob Groeshen. Also in the class were two from Utica QC.
I'd really appreciate your e-mailing the picture of the other class. Somehow the other two class pictures I taught had disappeared over time. By the way Sherrill was among those at the top of the class scholastically.
Shortly after teaching this class, training was moved to Utica, NY. Thus, I transferred into the TACS training group and ended up in the Defense Systems Division. After that my only contact with commercial was that I was loaned to Lee Johnson in Blue Bell to work on a proposal and also to sales to assist in their effort to sell computers to Northern Ordnance.
Good to hear from you. Lowell keeps adding to the Legacy so stay in contact. Lyle Franklin

Hello Lyle, November 15, 2008:
It's sure good to hear from you. I have the pictures in a box somewhere and will look for it. I'll scan it and email it to you when I find it. By the way, I triggered on your first name "Lyle" but I'm not sure our class wasn't taught by Lyle Gilbertson. Did you know him? I think he ended up out in Utah or someplace like that for Univac. It's been a while so I'm not sure my memory is all that clear.
Sherrill was a very personable guy and a great diplomat who kept his customer happy in the face of lots of adversity, if you know what I mean. The UFC-I wasn't setting any MTBF records at the time. Sherrill always had that worried look on his face. I always tried to help him when I was there so Sherrill and his people and my installation team spent lots of time together in the Conde Nast computer room. I met a girl in Boulder when I was there and he was at my wedding. I wonder what happened to him?
When I graduated from UFC-I school, they were apparently behind in shipping the computers to customers so my class went over to plant 1 and built three of them from the ground up. Now THAT was really good training. Then they sent us to Utica to build controllers for the Bull 80 column card system. Ugh! Then I went back to St. Paul and went into Tech Liaison [Hank Valo's group] for the rest of my UFC-I career. Traveled all over the place, met lots of great people and worked my tail off before they pulled the plug on the program.
I was very familiar with Lee Johnson and his Government Marketing people. I ended up being the Marketing Manager for Univac Roseville. We set up all the seminars, visits and benchmarks for all Univac sales efforts for the 1108, and 494 programs. We did some stuff for DSD and had great relationships with all the folks in plant #1. You may have known my secretary, Sally Halvorsen [now Hafvenstein]. I'm still in close touch with her. Regards, Allan

Dear Allan - November 15, 2008:

The Lyle you're referring to was Lyle Gilbertson. I was brought into his file computer class to instruct the transistor circuits. Later he became lead instructor on TACS. From there, he transferred into the engineering department to work on the SKIOTRAN full screen display. [Refer to the Legacy Systems area.] Darn thing never did work. After Utah he returned to DSD Eagan and worked in the International Systems Group under my dear friend George Workman. After I left St. Paul in 1985 for a post in CA, I lost track of him.
I did some searching on Sherrill N. Milner. According to ZabaSearch he may live in LA.
In AZ we have an annual get together sponsored by Wally Emerson. You may have come in contact with him. Anything else you'd like to know maybe I could be of help. Lyle Franklin

Hi Lyle - November 16, 2008:

Thanks for the update - that clears up my confusion on the two Lyles. Lyle G. was a very nice guy and a great instructor. He taught us a lot about O' scope technology and I never regretted the background he gave us in how to use a scope. That's when you did troubleshooting down to the circuit card level and then to the component level, AND then repaired your own cards. I remember that those transistorized head gates on the File Computer were really tricky. We were more comfortable with vacuum tubes back then, I guess. Trying to mix vacuum tubes and transistors didn't always work out as I remember.
I'll try the number you gave me for Sherrill. I also got a hit on another search site (Argali) that will do a US wide search. There is a Sherrill Milner listed in Louisiana and now that I think of it, that might be where he was from.
I remember Wally Emerson very well. As I remember, he was the world's youngest looking engineer and a very talented guy. If you see him out there in AZ please give him my regards.
I'll let you know how I come out an my search for Sherrill. If I find him, I'm sure he would like to be in touch with you.
These national search sites [like] are really wonderful. I don't know if you remember him, but I was thinking about Floyd Whitmill one time and poked his name in Argali just for the fun of it. Floyd was one of my classmates in Lyle G.'s class. We roomed together when we got sent out to Utica and were best friends. I found him down in Texas a couple of years ago, and he couldn't believe I was calling him after all these years. Last year I called him again just to say "hi" and the number was disconnected - no further Argali hits so I presume that means the worst about Floyd. It's tougher to let someone go when you can't find out about what happened to them.
I got a nice email back from Lowell Benson and as it turns out, we share the same middle name and spelling [Allan]. He's invited me to send in some more Bio information which he will post on the website.
I'm really impressed by how nice everyone on the site has been to me and I hope I will be able to make some more contacts with old Univac friends.
Regards, Allan    

4.2 Dr. John Esch,

From June 1969 to October 2004 the name on the building kept changing from Univac, Sperry Univac, Sperry, Unisys, PARAMAX, Loral, and finally Lockheed Martin.  But the work inside didn’t; we package advanced electronics, especially computers, into militarized enclosures.  When I retired, I was still really enjoying the many interesting and challenging projects on which I was working.  But grandchildren grow up so fast and I didn’t want to miss those precious years.
     Those mostly great years started after I received my PhD from the University of Illinois in Electrical Engineering.  I started as a Principal Electrical Engineer designing the first micro programmed computers; spent over 4 years at the commercial division on the Roanoke project; returned to start the Software Engineering Department, implement Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, and work on numerous Avionic systems; and ended, after over 35 years, as a Senior Staff Software Engineer.  During that time I wrote over 100 technical journal papers, reports, and proposals.  My most significant contribution to the company is probably helping to win Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) which, at the time, was the largest contract the division had ever won.
     Because of the widespread use of the UYK-20 and UYK-44 computers on many Navy ships, submarines, and shore stations, my contributions to their instruction set architecture (ISA) back in the early 1970s is one of my most satisfying efforts.  The history behind that ISA goes back to a series of test vehicles and the Micro Programmable Control (MPC) processor that were built back in the days before microprocessors when Univac designed and built computers from scratch. Under Dr. Carl Glewwe and later Larry Wozniczka, we[1] perfected micro programmed computer control. TV-1[2] was the Univac’s first micro programmed computer. TV-2[3] perfected the application of micro programmed control and the computer’s design. And TV-3[4], also know as the Ceramic Processor, verified advanced packaging concepts associated with using thin ceramic boards.

     During this same time, Glen Kregness implemented the MPC.  Based on the test vehicles and MPC, Kregness, Don Bennett, Bruce Olson and I[5] produced the ISA for the 1616 Computer {Editor's note: The 1616 computer was hardwired logic, not micro code} that was built and sold as a ruggedized workstation {Editor's note: The AN/UYK-15 was the ruggedized 1616}. A military version became the AN/UYK-20 {Editor's note: This was based on the MPC.} and it later evolved into the AN/UYK-44, both based on the original ISA.
     During this period Univac Federal Systems Division was recognized as having the most experience with micro programmed computer control.  Consequently, when the commercial division in Roseville bought RCA’s computer operations and wanted to merge the RCA 9000 line with the Univac 1100 series, they transferred three of us; Kregness, Bennett, and Esch, up to Roseville to help on the Roanoke project.  Interestingly, we used a 360 bit wide micro programmed computer called the NANODATA QM1 to simulate the new architecture.  The resulting computer used micro programmed control either to emulate the RCA and UNIVAC computers or to operate in a new mode that more directly supported high level languages.  On Roanoke I got the opportunity to help specify the system programming language, control language, and software engineering suite, a significant growing experience for me.
     However, I missed the advanced projects in our defense systems division, and in the late 70s, after nearly 5 years at Roseville, I transferred back to Unisys Government Systems Group to start the first Software Engineering Department.  My philosophy was to emphasized automated tools to facilitate orderly software engineering by making the tools useful and easy to use.  Long before today’s UML, we defined a software design language and integrated it with graphical tools for flowcharting, input process output diagrams, and structure charts.  However, I’m not a born manager and cringed at the hiring and firing decisions that affected peoples lives so much.  So, in the early 1980s, I went back to technical work.
     First there was the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) contract to prototype a hardware description language, compiler and database.  My role was to define and develop the database to store the hardware designs specified using the VHSIC hardware description language.  Then came a stint in Phil Phipps’ Artificial Intelligence (AI) group.  On looking back, this was probably the golden era because AI was funded over a number of years to develop significant AI capabilities.  By the time we were done, we had a system into which once could speak some factual information and the system would do speech recognition, natural language processing, conversion to conceptual graph knowledge representation, and communication to an expert system that integrated the information, and sent back logical conclusions and assessments.  Very cool system!  Unfortunately it was programmed in LISP and ran on LISP Machines so, when Ada came along, they made us get rid of the LISP Machines and the program died, along with a conceptual graph knowledge representation scheme that was successfully patented.
     My contribution included working with expert Ralph Otts to develop ATHENE, a Naval Battle Group Threat Assessment expert system that assessed complex situations and inferred the significance of each situation better than conventional systems.  It got the highest score from the government for software projects in the Electronic Systems Division.  Work in the AI group also included using lattice theory to show how Ron Mahler and others’ data fusion engine and Bob Shephard’s Submarine Expert Analysis System (SEAS) could be integrated; applying conceptual graphs to temporal reasoning and scheduling problems; and helping develop the Passive Acoustic Parameter Association (PAPA) knowledge based submarine classification system with Dan Raymond.  For me, this was great stuff.
     But, as we all know working for a defense contractor, projects only last a few years, and we were having some lean years.  Fortunately, Hal Pyle had an assignment for me working with Bryce Richards in Airborne Systems.  There I spent several years as project lead on a series of S-3B Maritime Patrol Aircraft IR&D projects.  These demonstrated growth potential for Color High Resolution Displays (CHRDs) with maps, a real-time tactical database manager integrating both on-board sensor contacts and off-board SATCOM & JTIDS contacts, and wideband communication of image data from on-board sensors.
     When the S-3B went away, I had to move on and joined Rick Steven’s fiber optic group.  This was another golden era for me as Rick was a wonderful guy for whom to work and had exciting things on which to work.  The biggest was helping to win JSF.  I spent a lot of time traveling to Lockheed Martin Fort Worth to participate in numerous studies and to help[6] convince them we could do a fiber optic backplane for the avionics system’s computers.  Fortunately, we did.
     A great project, on which I was lucky enough to work, was flying mega pixel digital cameras on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).  Fortunately, Dr. Steve Sohn did a wonderful job packaging the computer board and getting the image processing working.  I hated to retire and leave a project where we got to go outside and fly cool payloads.
I suspect that, if I have left a legacy, it is the computer boards with fiber optic interfaces which Aaron Cordes, Don Dargontina, and I developed.  This is because they incorporate the Rapid I/O (RIO) protocol which finally offered a means to exploit the bandwidth potential of fiber optics.  All-in-all UNIVAC … Lockheed Martin was a great place to work!

[1] Principally Bill Chaney, Bruce Dietzler, Bob DeWard, Chuck Keisling, and me.
[2] “A Modular MSI Processor Definition, PX-5606, 11/21/69 by Bill (A. W.) Cheney, Bob DeWard, Bruce Dietzler, and John Esch.
[3] “Performance Specification for Test Vehicle II (TV-2) Computers,” PX-6244 1/29/71 by Bruce Christensen, Bob DeWard, Bob Eggan, V. A. Ehresman, and John Esch; and “Functional Requirements for Test Vehicle II,” PX-6435, 6/-/71 by Esch and DeWard.
[4] “X-III Alphs Configuration Packaging and Hardware, Phase II,” PX-6632-6, 3/72 by John Esch, Chuck Kiesling, and Richard Lindaman.
[5] One or two others, that I can’t remember, also contributed.
[6] The other main players were Mert Horne, Daryle Hamlin, Rick Stevens, Steve Newcomer and Chuck Kryczak.  

4.3 John Enstad, 1967 - 2010

John started as a programmer for the Navy's ANEW avionics ASW systems.  His defense industry career spans 43 years in a broad variety of positions and responsibilities until he retired in 2010. Read the EnstadBio.pdf for details.

5. Career Summaries - F

5.1 George Fedor

     United States Navy 1958 - 1965 I attained rank of FTM1 after four years and served a total of seven years, more than five years of that as sea duty. I served onboard USS Dupont DD 941 supporting the MK 68 Gun Fire Control System and onboard USS Canberra CAG2 supporting the Terrier Missile Fire Control System. I also served onboard USS Tidewater AD31 providing tender support on numerous Radars, Computers, Directors and Guns on US Navy ships and US ships transferred to the Hellenic (Greek) and Brazilian Navies.
     Univac/Sperry Univac/Sperry/Paramax/Unisys 1965 - 1995 - I joined Univac in May 1965 after interviewing in Roseville and in Plant 1 with Gordie Bourne. I was assigned to the Plant 3 Test Floor as an “engineering technician C” under Bill Turner and Maylon James. My duties were to perform checkout and acceptance testing on the last two production CP-642A computers, first wire wrap CP-642B and first 1230 computers, the 1215 Digital Trainers, and various NTDS equipment.
     In September of 1966, I transferred to Navy Field Engineering, reporting to Joe Graham in Ed Olzewski’s group. I was assigned to Technical Support duties and left the very next day for the Western Test Range, Barking Sands, HI, to work a CP-642B problem. A week later, I was at NUSC Newport, RI installing another CP-642B and RD243 Magnetic Tape, repairing two old USQ17 computers, one coffin type and one upright, and teaching a familiarization class for NUSC engineers. From there I was sent to the OPCON Center at Treasure Island, CA to work the CP-642B and 12 handler 1540 MTU systems. It was here that I received a little help from two old timers, Ralph Thompson and Kurt Kampf. Welcome to Field Engineering! This was where I learned that a Univac Field Engineer was never out there alone. That was the day I knew I had found a home.
     For the next couple of years, I traveled almost constantly to NTDS equipped DLG’s, cruisers, carriers and to a NASA tracking ship. During this period I also made maintenance visits to various Navy labs, schools, NASA labs, NA/Columbus, other government contractors, vendors and other Univac facilities. I accompanied Tom Robinson, one of our real old-timers, to Salt Lake to check out and run acceptance on their first production 1540 Magnetic Tape Units, and spent a week at Sylvania, Needham Heights, MA at the Navy’s request to get Sylvania’s first CP-642B BlueDot computers going. I was told years later by Dave Watson, NAVSEA, that that was where we met; he was the NSTR rep there at that time. I even spent a little time in Rome, Italy, installing the SADOC System lab at Salenia. As a bonus, I made a couple of trips to sunny Keflavik, Iceland, in support of the SNONOC system.
     Along the way, Univac payroll refused to pay me while I was traveling because I still had a yellow time card and I was reminded that I was “on the clock.” Joe and Ed’s solution was to promote me to Associate Field Engineer, Grade 3 (pink time card).
     In 1968, I received my first Univac training on the CP-890 Computer between trips. After training, I set up the post-delivery lab in plant 5 to install updates and field changes in the computers and the associated CV2034 buffers. Engineering’s Dick Erdrich, Jim Sanchez, and I worked the project successfully testing engineering changes and installing field changes. This post delivery Update/Field Change process worked well and would continue to work well in the future on the UYK7, UYK20, and UYK43 programs. We also set up a CP-890 in a 40 ft Van behind plant 2 for Diagnostic Programming to develop the program and for bug insertion/data collection.
     Later, I supported testing of a 1289 (forerunner to the CP-890) computer onboard the USS Pargo SSN650 in Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico and in St Croix, US Virgin Islands. Later, I provided shipyard support on the first installation of Digital TALOS and installation of NTDS on the USS Albany CG12 in Boston Naval Shipyard. Following that, I visited Sperry Systems Management Division in Great Neck for familiarization prior to a six month assignment with SSMD engineers. We installed NAVTEC3, a Poseidon FBM submarine Navigation Trainer system at Dam Neck, VA. Within two hours after we had power, both CP-890 Computers were up and running. The CV2034 buffer completed checkout the next day after we removed an “extra” pair of red handled pliers that we returned to an assembler in our plant 3 test floor. The rest of 1969 was spent supporting the 2D2 Trainer at the Pinecastle Naval Weapons Range, Astor, FL, a 1230/1540/1004 bomb scoring and pilot training system.
     One trip involved Engineering's Bob Oulicky and Dick Erdrich, Navy Office’s Joe Chehoski, and me on the USS England DDG22 in the Long Beach Shipyard. The complaint was the computers would fault when the three inch guns were fired. Dick and I pulled a few memory problems out of both CP-642Bs (Bluedots, as I recall) and got them running pretty well. At a meeting with the Captain, Bob Oulicky asked him to fire the guns as a test, pointing them out to sea. When the Captain said that he couldn’t, as he had no ammunition aboard and he could not fire his guns in a shipyard anyway. Bob replied, with his best Army understanding, “Can’t you borrow a couple of bullets from another ship?” and finished with “Oh, I thought this was your ship.”
     In 1970, I returned to St. Paul and was assigned to tech support and the AN/UYK7 program working for Ollie Petek. As a part of my duties, I was given the field support task for this product. This involved putting out a weekly summary report for management on field performance and problems and interfacing with Engineering’s Doug Wiedenman to define which was a “known” problem and which was a failure. The most difficult part of this task was finding spares where there were none; this even involved a “lost” processor lost in a file drawer in Jim Oberainger’s PM office. The UYK7 processor had been redesigned and a field retrofit program had to be set up for the first 37 systems, I believe. A cover field change was written, schedules were worked out, factory wire wrap/soldering training was set up, mechanical and technical people were hired and trained with a two-day course taught by Bill Fuess, an field engineer we recruited from SSMD, and off we went with a post delivery Update/Field Change program that was a cost savings and a technical success.
     Intermixed with the UYK-7 crisis of the day, I provided maintenance and installation support on-site to various UYK7 users such as IBM BQQ5 and BQQ6 programs, Litton LHA Lab, Litton DD963 Lab, NURDC, GD Pamona, and the AEGIS program at Raytheon Wayland and RCA Moorestown.
     In 1973, I was promoted to Supervisory Field Engineer, Navy & Marine Corps Field Engineering, reporting to W. L. (Gerry) Grose, and the real boss, Betty Reinke. Along with Paul Hove and Bruce Weigle, we covered all Navy and Marine Systems in the field. Around this time, I was one of two DSD personnel to be awarded the Presidential Excellence Award as a part of an Excellence Program; my award for my efforts on the USS Albany CG12 in Boston and various NTDS tasks. Dennis Amundsen (as I recall) and I, along with our bosses , were flown to Blue Bell on the Sperry corporate jet for the award presentations and for lunch with R. E. McDonald , President, and G. G. Probst, CEO of Sperry Univac. This was the high point in my career at Univac.
     Later in the UYK7 program, the number of field changes indicated that a second update program was required. Again, the processes were written, schedules were worked out, teams were assembled and off we went. And, again, we completed the program at a significant cost savings by doing most of the work in the field with field engineers using our field burden rate. The utilization of the update programs and the support of our field engineers on-site combined with the outstanding factory and program support ensured the eventual success of the deployed UYK-7s in AEGIS Cruisers, DD963, DD993, LHA new construction shipboard systems and onboard Trident FBM and SSN Attack submarines and with follow-on programs.
     In November of 1975, I was promoted to Eastern Regional Manager, Navy and Marine Corps Field Engineering, under Gerry Grose in the Navy Systems Division under Dick Seaberg. My office was located at 2121 Wisconsin Ave, Washington, DC. and was headquarters for 2 supervisors, 30+ engineers and technicians on sites at Bathe Ironworks, Raytheon, NUSC Newport, Naval War College, Electric Boat, Sperry Gyro, SSMD, IBM Owego, NADC, RCA AEGIS, IBM Manassas, NSWC Dahlgren, NATC Pax River, Newport News Shipbuilding, MOTU Norfolk, USMC Cherry Point and New River, MOTU Charleston, and NAS Jacksonville. Gerry Grose had always pushed us to grow the business we were in; to increase the customers’ use of Univac field personnel in their programs.
     During the five years I was in Washington, our group shared offices with DSD Marketing’s Al Hobelman, Joe Coughlin, and Parker Folsom and with Chan Swallow and his group. Although the office was setup to closely support Don Ream and NAVSEA, we found that the Program Offices were better suited to that task. We did warn Don Ream of a pending Admiral’s dinner at the White House at the end of a shakedown cruise on a new submarine. Admiral Rickover, as I recall, was overheard by our field engineer describing the UYK7 as a “boat anchor” after it failed while the submarine was running submerged during IBM’s BQQ5 sonar testing. The program office survived.
     To resolve a field time card problem, I obtained a Uniscope 100 and modem and put our regional office on-line with MAPPER in St. Paul. The St. Paul Control Center was inputting raw installation data from field reports on UYK-7's being installed on submarines. In a conversation with NAVSEA’s Jim Davis, Warren Higbie and I talked about what we were doing, and showed him our data and scope. After we setup a trip to St. Paul for a show-and-tell by Norm Alrick, the Submarine Data Management business was started and added more than 30 people to our staff for years. Spin-offs of this business continues today.
     We grew the field engineering business to 150+ engineers and techs under three area managers, Larry Day in Newport, RI, Warren Higbie in Washington, and Jim Cocherell in Norfolk, VA by June of 1980. We did this by providing complete maintenance and support services to FCPCLANT Dam Neck, NWC Dahlgren, and NUSC Newport using less people and at a cost savings to the government customer. We also showed the technical codes at shipyards and other contractors and laboratories the unused man days available under the UYK7 1039 and 1402 hardware production contracts. In this way, we were able to staff customer sites with Univac field engineers and bill for thousands of otherwise unused man days on these contracts.
I returned to St Paul in June of 1980 at my request, taking a New Business Manager slot reporting to Gerry Grose. In August, 1980, I was appointed Manager, Central & Overseas Region, Navy & Marine Corps Field Engineering. In this position, I provided technical support on all Navy/Marine products, field engineering training and certification, in-house support to Plant 2 and 8 labs, Product Control Center support, Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula, MS for DD963 and LHA, Marine Corps systems at GD Fort Worth, lab testing at Eglund AFB, FL and all MOTU sites in Italy, Hawaii, Japan, Okinawa and the Philippines. Also, during this period, we created the UNIVAC Field Repair Facilities (FRF’s) in Virginia Beach, Va. and in San Diego, CA. These facilities provided local waterfront repair shops to quickly repair failed modules and install updates or field changes.
     In 1983, I was appointed Group Manager, Technical Support Operations, reporting to Dick Roessler, Director of Customer Services. This position included Installation Services, Air Traffic Control Field Engineering, both field and in-house, Navy & Marine Central Region, Overseas Field Engineering including FMS and US Navy sites, and all St. Paul lab and refurbishment support. At the peak, 5 managers and 185+ engineers and technicians worked in this group.
     In late 1984 and early 1985, I took a little time off with my first heart attack. I returned to the group with a little less spirit and, as Bob Hedlund noted, with a little CRMS Syndrome (Can’t Remember Much). I slowed down a bit.
     In the mid eighties Engineering Services Operations (ESO) was created as a separate division, dividing field engineering into field and St Paul based groups. The idea for ESO was to use our very low field burden rate and our field organization to go after competitive services business including not just maintenance but the complete operation of DOD Labs. ESO was a W.L. Grose and Warren Higbie venture that, although separate from DSD, provided field engineering manpower to staff field sites in support of DSD products. Shortly after this we got into the reorganization cycle until Burroughs came to town and changed us to UNISYS.
     With the conversion to UNISYS and associated reorganizations, I went to work for Gerry Engelke in Bob Kochendorfers group. My memory fails me in this period. I had another heart attack in August of 1991 and took about five months off. I came back to work under Garyld Harms working a project to bring the Multi Mode Display refurbishment back to St Paul from Clearwater. That we did and the program died after a short run due to customer lack of interest.
     I do remember writing a lot of proposals and recall taking a long look at the AN/UYK-43 Update with Norm Alrick and Rick Price. With the need to perform this update as fast and as low in cost as possible, the use of the Field Repair Facilities in VA and CA using factory processes and methods seemed to be the obvious answer. The plan was approved and the biggest update we ever did was underway. Our main effort was FRF oversight and to ensure factory processes were prepared, procedures were followed and records were completed for all work performed.
I left the company in December, 1994.
Other Significant accomplishments:

  • I served on the curriculum advisory board for Trinidad State College, Trinidad, Colorado from 1980 to 1985. We hired 70+ graduates form Trinidad from 1967 to 1990. This assisted Univac in meeting our employee minority goals. Only a very few did not work out at Univac. Their work ethic, attitudes and abilities were instrumental, I’m sure, in the decision to open our plant in Pueblo. The Dean of the Electronics School, Bill McCarthy, was a UNISYS employee there for years after he retired from teaching, working at Unisys Pueblo under Dick Johnson.
  • During my years at Univac, I assisted in providing technical educational opportunities for females in a male world. In 1978, we hired a female technician to work under contract at IBM Manassas and a female ex-navy technician to work at FCPCLANT, Dam Neck VA. After I returned to St. Paul, I counseled two clerk/typists to go to night school at Northwest Electronics Institute and become technicians. Both went on to become field technicians in our groups.
  • In the late 1980's and early 1990's, computer networking was coming into widespread use in most DOD systems. Our field engineering force as a whole was ageing and had little exposure to networks. I worked with the Rosemount Technical College to set up a Network Engineering night school course inside plant 8 for my field engineers who attended on a voluntary basis. I left just as the classes started.  At the time, not too many others shared my concern.  

5.2 Lyle Franklin, 1956-1988

I was hired in July 1956 as a field engineer. After a varied early career, which included training, design engineering, staff to the NTDS* program manager, Vern Leas, then head of the Military PERT** Group. During this time I also conducted PERT seminars for the American Management Association. Later, when reporting to Director of Aerospace, I was on loan to Assistant General Manager DSD*** where I was responsible for the development of the Program Reporting System. I joined Navy Marketing in 1967. At that time, the group consisted of Bruce Lindell, John Markfelder, Bob Johnson, and me reporting to Julian Bilski then Cal DeBuhr. During that time I also was an instructor in the St. Paul Vocational night school electronics program.

  • *NTDS => Naval Tactical Data Systems
  • **PERT => Program Evaluation and Review Techniques
  • ***DSD => Defense Systems Division

From 67 to 72, I was an Account Representative developing Navy marketing interfaces which led to the Navy standard usage products: MK-152 Fire control computer, OJ-172 I/O Console, and the RD-358. I participated with Leo Bock in the development and sale of Sperry’s first ruggedized 16-bit computer, the AN/UYK-15 to ITT Gilfillan's SPS-48 program. During this time, Bruce Lindell changed assignments and Dick Huberty joined the group. Of significance, I was responsible for submitting proposals and participating in the ASMS and DX programs. As part of the ASMS effort, with help from Bob Mavis I was responsible for generating and negotiating our first teaming agreement. During these early years I was also expanding my formal education, receiving BS of Business from the University of Minnesota in 1969.

After Dewaine Osman became VP of Marketing, Cal resigned. Don Fagan was transferred to St. Paul from the Washington office. Gordon Frederick also joined the Navy Marketing group and shortly thereafter Stan Foote became Navy and International Programs Marketing Director. Dick Huberty reported to me and I reported to Gordon. Dick and I pursued NAVORD related programs.

In early 1972, by this time Dewaine had left for Blue Bell and Dick Seaberg had replaced him as VP Marketing, I was given responsibility for the majority of Navy Marketing and restructured the organization. Reporting to me was Gordon Frederick with Command and Control Systems (CCS) Group; I led the Communication Systems Group. I transferred NAVSEC follow on order responsibility to Dick Snell and John Anderson. I also participated in the marketing efforts, which produced the Navy Modular Communication System, Sensor Positioning and Ranging System, and the Digital Switching System. Both SPARS and DSS were competitive two-step procurements. On special assignment, I led the marketing efforts which led to the capture of the UYK-20 competitive award. Later I assigned Carl Boecher to the UYK-20 follow on procurements. Gordon requested a transfer to Forrest Lowe’s Air Force marketing group so Lee Best joined us to lead marketing of CCS.

 Dick Seaberg and Dick Holm came up with the Tiger Awards for new business and new product development sales. I felt honored to be the first recipient in 1972 for the RD-358 development sale. In April 1973, a second Tiger Award was presented to my recommended co-recipients, Ray Smith and Will Reisinger of the Washington office and me. We were honored for winning the Standard Navy Mini-Computer development award, the AN/UYK-20. Later I was awarded the Salesman of the Year for SPARS, RD-358, DSS, and the UYK-20 along with Ray Smith and Wil Reisinger. Ray for the UYK-20 and RD-358 and Wil for the UYK-20. The following year I had the privilege of nominating Ray and Walt Massengale as Salesman of the Year for their efforts in winning the NAVMACS program.

From 1975 to 1977, I was Regional Manager for the Northwest Region reporting to Salt Lake City. As DSD’s only northwest rep I was involved in PELSS, B-1 Computer Replacement Program, and the sale of an RD-358 into an Army program. My efforts on the PLSS Wide Band Data Link were recognized with a third Tiger Award signed by Curt Rangen and Jim Harte.

In 1977 I returned to St. Paul in Air Force Marketing. Jerry Meyers asked me to join International Marketing and I reported to John Spearing from 77 to 79. Highlights were leading the marketing efforts that produced one new client country and restructuring the foreign representatives contract agreements. I also had the privilege of serving as primary interface with our consultant, VADM J. T. (Chick) Hayward.

From 79 to 81 - I was Director of Civilian Agencies Marketing, chairing the market development consisting of program management, systems and product engineering, manufacturing, and financial operations for the identification of future requirements. We expanded the visibility of our Air Traffic Control capability through our support and participation with the Air Traffic Control Assoc. as well as our generation of related technical papers.

From 81 to 85, I served as Director of Air Traffic Control Systems Marketing. We were successful in winning one major competitive contract for the FAA’s National Airspace Modernization initiatives, the system study for the replacement of the HOST computers at En-route Centers. Our support of the Air Traffic Control Association and our earlier efforts led to our receiving the ATCA Technical Achievement Award for New York Tracon. Later the Sperry organization through Mr. Seaberg made a significant donation to their scholarship fund. During this time the organization was transferred to Sperry Systems Management and I reported to Jim Stahley.

In April of 1985, I was asked to be the Sales Manager of the Technical Services Division. In this position until retiring in 1988, we successfully penetrated several new markets including the Naval Weapons Center at China Lake. During our pursuit of the support contract we sold an AN/UYK-7 and associated peripherals into their Ship in the Desert Program.

During my tenure in marketing the organization matured. As Jim Rapinac explained, we were novices in the early years. It was a ‘learn by doing’ process. Under Dewaine, Marketing became a force, which was actively guiding the future through determining, pursuing and winning new business. Working for Remington Rand through UNISYS was mostly enjoyable. My career had increasing levels of responsibility for marketing of products and services based upon early experiences with customers and their equipment/systems needs. Yes, we had an occasional lump or bump but these were minor when compared with the good times and good friends. 

5.3 Les Flugum, 1974-2023

I grew up in the Albert Lea, MN, area, helping the family by working on our dairy farm. That was also the era when the U.S. Space Program was starting up. My interest in the space program and how things were designed and built led to me selecting the University of Minnesota for their engineering program. After attending the U of MN for three years, I switched to an engineering technology program at Anoka Ramsey Community College.
After completing an associate of arts degree, I was hired by Sperry UNIVAC. This began a 49-year career working at Sperry UNIVAC, Sperry, Unisys, Paramax, Loral, and then Lockheed Martin (LM). I had a diverse career, beginning at the Plant 1 facility. My efforts were to perform checkout and final test on the RD-358 magnetic tape system. When this program transitioned to the Salt Lake City location, I found a position with the Air Traffic Control (ATC) engineering team, testing the design of the Sensor Receiver and Processor (SRAP).
During this time, I decided to return to the U of MN to complete my electrical engineering degree. Upon graduation, I moved to the AN/UYK-43 computer design team, working as a design engineer on the Central Processing Unit (CPU) module. As the program completed, I moved to the Eagan Postal Engineering group, with responsibility for the Postal Mailing Center (PMC) design (an automated postal kiosk to weigh packages and provide the required postage to mail the letter or package). This also included the project to sell the PMC systems to Argentina’s postal service. As part of the design and support, I traveled to Argentina to help train and set up the systems. Once that project was completed, I worked on a couple more ATC programs.
At that point in my career, I joined the Eagan Cost Engineering group that worked with various engineering teams to develop engineering estimates for Eagan proposals, and provided input to engineering management as the estimates were reviewed and evaluated. I was asked by management to lead the effort to implement new estimating tools to streamline the overall process. This led to implementing a Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) proposal pricing tool called PROPRICER, which calculated the cost build-ups for the estimates, and produced government-compliant reports for inclusion in proposal cost volumes. As Eagan became part of Lockheed Martin’s Mission Systems and Sensors (MS2), I led the efforts to integrate the proposal tools across the enterprise. When MS2 grew and was transformed into MST and then Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS), I continued to lead the integration and maintenance of these proposal tools across the enterprise until my retirement in 2023. While working, I also became a professional engineer and earned a LM Lean/Six Sigma Black Belt.
Outside of working, my wife and I raised a family and supported our children’s activities in sports and Boy Scouts. I now enjoy attending my grandchildren’s activities; golfing and walking for exercise; volunteering at the Lawshe Museum, helping with the Lockheed Martin Legacy team efforts; and I just became a VIP Club Board of Directors member.
 Les Flugum


In this Chapter

Topical Article Contributors [left]

  1. Career Summaries - C: 2.1 Greg Casey; 2.2 Bob Chappelear; 2.3 Dennis Christ; 2.4 Chuck Covington; 2.5 David E. Cross; and 2.6 Dr. George Chapine.
  2. Career Summaries - D: 3.1 Keith Davis; 3.2 Michael Doll; 3.3 Jim Donaldson;  3.4, Hank Dotzler; 3.5 Dave Duncan;  3.6 Larry Debelak; and 3.7 Gish Devlaminck.
  3. Career Summaries - E: 4.1 Allan Edwards,  4.2 Dr. John Esch, and 4.3 John Enstad.
  4. Career Summaries - F: 5.1 George Fedor, 5.2 Lyle Franklin, and 5.3 Les Flugum.

Chapter 12 edited 3/1/2024.