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Information Technology Pioneers

Retirees and former employees of Unisys, Lockheed Martin, and their predecessor companies

In this Chapter

  1. Introduction [left]
  2. Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW)
    • P-3C Computer development by Robert 'Bob' Blixt
    • From 24 to 30 bits by Marwood Clement
    • Can You Implement This by Ned Hunter
    • Navy's ANEW program manager by several
  3. From P-3 to S-3A by James 'Rapp' Rapinac
  4. ABCCC
  5. Quicklook
  6. Others

 

| Aerospace | Airborne | Air Traffic Control | ASOC | Commercial | Government | International | Marines | Navy

Airborne Systems' Chapter

1. Introduction

Twin Cities operations have supported the Navy’s P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft since their introduction in 1962. Eagan engineers developed the CP-901 and the software making it the AN/ASQ-114 system, the AN/AYK-10, and later the CP-2044 avionics computers for Navy aircraft. [lab]

From Jim Rapinac: The main avionics computer programs that I recall over my years at DSD were:

  • I was the marketing representative in 1964 for the sale of computers to Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA, for project ANEW, which resulted in production orders for the 1830A/CP-901 computers for P-3C ASW aircraft. My boss, Marwood Clement, a retired USN Captain, who worked for Vern Leas, introduced the word Avionics to Defense Systems Division in about 1963. Clem was the driving force in getting CP-901 orders from the Navy on a sole source basis and I was the marketer of record and became known at NAVAIR and Lockheed as 'Sole Source Rapinac'.
  • In 1965, I was the Avionics marketing manager in charge of VSX, the development program for the S-3A computers, Univac Type 1832. We teamed exclusively with Lockheed who won the prime contractor award and DSD provided all production computers and subsequent upgrades and also did all operational software for the S-3A via our facilities in Valencia, CA. S-3 was the most profitable program in the history of DSD. Ernie Hams couldn't figure out how to spend excess S-3 profits and that is why we did the Mammogram Examination X-Ray enhancement program at the Valencia facility in 1974!
  • The Canadian services used the Lockheed P-3C aircraft and the S-3A's AN/AYK-10 for their CP-140 Aurora ASW system.
  • Finally, as VP, Marketing, under VP/GM Seaberg, we bid and won the AN/AYK-14 second source contract that resulted in setting up a plant in Pueblo, Colorado. The marketing guy assigned to win this program was Tom Hanson. [Rapp]
  • [Rapp]

2. Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW)

2.1 P-3C Early Computer Development at Univac Bob Blixt - 10 October 2006

   In 1962 the Univac marketing folks located a promising Naval Air program at the Naval Air Development Center at Johnsville, PA, called ANEW. {Editor's note: ANEW is not an acronym, it is simply 'a new' approach to ASW, i.e. using a digital versus an analog computer. } The objective of this program was to greatly improve the Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) capabilities of the P-3 aircraft. The then aircraft had an analog system that needed to be updated to the digital world. With our NTDS work and proven capability in building military digital computers, we were a good fit to help them with their program.
   Our first attempt was the use of a “left over” computer from the Titan program called ADD (Advance Digital Development) and a display system to show the possibilities of a digital airborne ASW system. The programming of the ADD computer proved to be very difficult so it was abandoned early in the game.
   In 1963 we sold the development of a computer (CP-823U) for the ANEW test aircraft. This aircraft made flights to St. Paul so our programmers could add programs and make changes. Some test flights were made from here, one to Lake Superior to test dropping sono-buoys with the digital system.
   The system continued development and the flight testing was set up at the Patuxent Naval Air Testing Center (Pax river) in Maryland. These tests required some of our programmers to go on these test flights. Some of our guys came back very airsick after going through some of the flight maneuvers of the test. We decided to recognize their “beyond the call of duty” effort and created the “Flying Programmer” award for them. It was this dedicated, creative hard work by these programmers that made this system go.
   The system did go. After many months of hardware and software problems, a sea test was set. An American submarine was used as the target and the ANEW system with our computer and software tracked it.
   The next step was a pre-production system. In 1966 we received our first contract for the CP-901 computer. I was given the job to go to Washington and pick it up. Programming for the new computer was also our job. The system requirements were set by the Naval Air Development Center so a Univac programming office was set up at Johnsville, PA [Westminster.] Programming was also done in St. Paul.
   Production required a new interface for us to work with, the Lockheed company in Burbank, CA. I believe we were the first to bring the new digital world to Lockheed. We had several meetings with their management to explain the ANEW system and to talk about planning for it.
   After many months of software and hardware development the system was coming together: software at Johnsville, hardware and software in St. Paul, the aircraft and other system components in Burbank. It was a thrill for me to go to Burbank and walk through the first P-3C on the production line after all the struggles we went through to get to this point.
   Our first quantity production contract for the CP-901 computer was received in 1968. The P-3C went on for many years with many updates.

2.2 From 24 to 30 bits! by Marwood Clement

"What was ANEW Mod 2?" Marwood Clement replied in 2010: “You're asking a lot of someone who can barely remember what he did yesterday! The very first flight tests on the P-3 used the Air Force missile computer, {Ed note: Type 1020, CP-754} which was a 'dog' to program - we "extrapolated" from those confusing results to how good it was going to be. I always considered that my contribution was to suggest that we use the identical instruction repertoire as on the Q20 shipboard computer. That stopped a lot of debates at Johnsville and among our own engineers and didn't help IBM." Marwood Clement

2.3 Can you implement this? by Ned Hunter

After much “push and pull,” my wife finally got me in the mood to clean the basement. The first item I came across was the box of personal effects that all people take with them when they leave the company. Plowing through the box, I came across an old YP-3C Specification for Display Software that started to bring back old memories. It took me back to a day in the early 60s when Dan Brophy came to me with something scribbled on an 8 1/2 x 11 piece of paper. He said it was a navigation program that he wanted implemented in a prototype computer that Bob Blixt and crew were developing. The purpose of the whole exercise was to demonstrate that a digital computer could replace (at least in part) the current analog computers. To do this, the plan was to receive data from the P-3 navigation system and compute the airplane’s position and track. I don’t think anyone outside of Dan thought that it had a chance of working, especially management, because they gave the task to me. I had very little experience and certainly wasn’t the sharpest blade in the drawer! With a meager beginning, Dan somehow parlayed this small contract with NADC into a modest contract for demonstration software to be implemented in an airborne computer aboard the P-3. Hence, MOD 1 was launched and with it was launched an era of excellence that apparently is still going on with many spin-offs. You could fill an auditorium with the people who contributed to the success of this program, but I still remember the day that Dan approached me with a piece of paper and asked, “Can you implement this?

Well, back to cleaning the basement…- Contributed by Ned Hunter

2.4 The NAVY's ANEW program manager at NADC

From Ben Zaslow: I came across some P-3 info in your publication. Was doing some searching on my dad [Isadore Zaslow.] Dad was very involved in the P-3 early days. He told me he was the one who came up with the name ANEW. He may have been the 'program manager'. I still have his, perhaps one-of-a-kind, ANEW coffee mug, and plaque. He went on to become the science advisor to the sixth fleet in Naples Italy 1975-1978, then went on to London and Hawaii doing 'who knows what'. I have many great memories of hanging out as a kid at his work at Johnsville NADC, messing around with the green screen radar thing and the trackball, with a bank of humming "tape" computers behind me. Thought I'd chime in. {Editor's note: January 2015 - I sent Ben's inquiry to several people who were associated with the early days at the Naval Air Development Center (NADC). Their responses are listed here.}

From Art Francis: Hi Lowell, I remember the name but do not remember having any involvement with Isadore Zaslow. I was part of the first group to transfer to Warminster [NADC Johnsville] in 1965. If he was the Program Manager at that time the, onsite person to interface with him would have been Eldon Stevens who has been dead for several years. I believe I also have the same ANEW coffee mug from the first group made. Many people wanted one so a lot more were made and handed out. Many years ago Glen Hambleton told me he was in a meeting at NADC in 1962 when the project name ANEW was adopted. I do not remember him saying who suggested it. Art

From Glen Hambleton: Lowell; I did attend one of the initial meetings with Tom Morris at NADC as part of describing the requirements of what became known as ANEW. I don't recall any of the names of NADC personnel at the meeting. I believe it was at this meeting someone went to the chalk board and saying this program would be called A (something) and wrote A(NEW) on the board with the understanding it would be filled in with the next sequential number from the last NADC program. For one reason or another that update of numbers never happened and A(NEW) persisted. Glen

From Dan Brophy: Ben---- We certainly remember you and your brother Carl. You frequently got together with our kids who were about the same age. Your father was a remarkable man. He and his partner, Tony Greco, were largely responsible for the complex definition of the computerized airborne anti-submarine warfare (ASW) system dubbed ANEW by your father.  He was instrumental in the definition and testing of new computerized ASW tactics. Isadore and I were at the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) for the first critical test of the ANEW system. NATC was typically very critical of new systems. After the test, your dad asked the test captain what he thought of the system since it was still in the early prototype stage. The captain 's answer was "buy it". The prototype system was successfully deployed during the Cuban missile crisis. Isadore continued to be the principal Navy development manager until it went into the production of the P-3 aircraft. A post flight analysis system was also developed and deployed. Many of your dad's ideas were instrumental in the S-3A carrier based ASW aircraft. I have great memories of this brilliant man and cherish our collaboration and friendship. Dan Brophy

From Quent Fabro: Ben's father was the Project Manager for ANEW as I recall. I have a an organizational chart that shows Adm. Baughman as the overall Program manager with Isadore as the NADC Project Manager. He was the one responsible for directing the technical planning and managing the activities for technical success. Ben should very proud of his father for his major contributions to the ANEW/P-3C Projects. Isadore achieved program schedules and met all technical requirements. Without a doubt the ANEW Program was a success with 750 P-3C aircraft built and flown by 16 nations around the world [note: it may be more than 16]. Project ANEW spawned the P-3C Program (MOD 1-3), Tactical Support Centers (AWOCs), and the carrier version S-3A/B (ANEW Mods 4 & 5). I worked with NADC in all these programs in some capacity and worked with his father and many of the personnel shown on the organization chart. I flew for nine months with the ANEW Mod 3 crew at NATC at Patuxent River, MD with Commander Melcer, Ray Huntley, Lt. Jack Renney, Lt. Ray Bryant, Don Kulacz, Denny Schule and others. Another side note for Ben--I developed the ANEW display module software and trackball control for that green display [Stromberg Datagraphics AN/ASA-70 display] that you remember. I have more documents that can be scanned and provided--one being the "ANEW Story" produced by NADC in a non-classified version with controlled distribution. Jim Rapinac interfaced with Isadore and other Naval Management and was instrumental in securing Univac's position on the ANEW team and the future P-3C Program Development/Production Programs. He can provide other insights and memories of the program. Jim used to sing the "ANEW we Love you song" because it was such a good program for our company.

Art Francis was on board before I was and worked and flew on the Mod 1 ANEW plane with Capt/Adm. Waller.

From Jim Rapinac: I knew Izzy Zaslow for many years. He was chief engineer for project ANEW and reported to Capt. Fred Baughman. We had many meetings, lunches, and dinners together. Great guy with a good sense of humor. Give my regards to his son. Rapp

By Lowell Benson: Ben, after reading the comments by other UNIVACers, I realized that I'd met your father in the fall of 1967. At that time, a P-3 from NATC had flown into Minneapolis Naval Air Station to pick up CP-901 S/N 1. A field engineer and I flew with the computer to Johnsville, arriving about 8 in the evening. We unloaded quickly as the plan had to return to NATC. We moved the computer and our suitcases into the laboratory, uncrated the computer, plugged it in, turned on power, and ran the test programs to verify that the computer functioned. Then as we tried to leave NADC about 1 AM, the guards wouldn't let us go because we had no badges and they had no records of us arriving - civilians generally didn't fly on Navy aircraft. We called the laboratory, a man we'd been dealing with came out and convinced the guards that we were there legally. The next morning we did a formal test and that guy signed off on our paper work so that UNIVAC would get paid for the computer. I don't recall his name - BUT, it had to have been your father, Isadore Zaslow, as he certainly had the authority to get us off the base and to get UNIVAC paid - I think the invoice was over $1M.   

3. A History of the Relationship between Sperry Univac Defense Systems Division and Lockheed California Aircraft Company by Jim Rapinac

   In 1963, Univac Defense Systems Division designed, developed and delivered a new airborne computer, CP-823U [Univac 1830] to the Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA, for U.S. Navy’s ANEW program, an advanced airborne digital avionics system for anti submarine warfare. The CP-823U design was based on the instruction set of the USQ-20B and was also software compatible. Future production versions were assigned a USN nomenclature of CP-901.
   In 1965, Univac was selected as the contractor to supply CP-901 computers to the US Navy for the P-3C program, a digital avionics upgrade for new land based Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) aircraft.
Lockheed California Aircraft Company, Burbank, CA, also known as CALAC, was the principle contractor for the P-3C, and Univac and other suppliers were called associate contractors. Univac CP-901 computers and other sub-systems were contracted by the US Navy and shipped to CALAC as government furnished equipment (GFE).
   The Univac field office at Naval Air Development Center (NADC), Warminster, PA, developed the P-3C operational programs which were also GFE'd to CALAC. Over 40 programmers worked on site at NADC and Univac continued work on various projects until NADC was closed in the late 1980’s. Jim Rapinac's high school friend's father, C.J. Henkel, had been chief engineer at CALAC but was now retired. He introduced Mr. Rapinac to several CALAC executives including George Papen, P-3C chief engineer, and Bert O'Laughlin, VP of Marketing. We had open access to Don Wilder, President of CALAC, and his successors, Fred Lashley and Fred Jacques. These high level contacts provided Univac marketing and technical managers direct access to the CALAC P-3C program office. CALAC was then an airframe company with little or no computer or software expertise. We convinced them that to sell off P-3C aircraft to the US Navy they had to have a system test program. George Papen finally saw the light and bought the idea. The P-3C system test software was one of Univac's largest software development programs at that time, 1968. More importantly, CALAC began to rely on Univac for software development and support!
   The open and honest management style of Univac personnel combined with proven on time and on target performance forged a new and mutually beneficial relationship with CALAC for the P-3C program and future programs. Over 285 new P-3C aircraft were bought under the original program and several upgrade programs have extended the life of the P-3C, the first digital airborne anti-submarine warfare system.
   In 1967 the U.S. Navy announced a new program, VS-X, a replacement for the Grumman S-2 carrier based ASW aircraft. Unlike the P-3C program, the VS-X would be a total package procurement with a single prime contractor. Grumman, McDonnell, Douglas, GD Convair, and CALAC were the initial competitors for a Concept Definition Phase Competition between 2 prime contractors followed by a down select to a single prime contractor.
   The 5 bidders all contacted Univac DSD since at that time DSD had the only technical expertise in airborne ASW digital systems. Mr. Rapinac was assigned as VS-X marketing manager. We met with all 5 bidders several times over a period of 6 months. Our strategy was to select and team with one company. In 1967 Grumman and McDonnell Aircraft were the only bidders currently making carrier based jet aircraft. Douglas and GD Convair made carrier based propeller aircraft during World War II and CALAC had never designed or built carrier based war planes.
   Grumman decided to pursue the F-4 replacement, VF-X, the F-14 Tomcat, which had planned quantities of over 1000 aircraft versus the VS-X by of 183 planes. They informally announced their no-bid decision, Grumman had been our first choice for teaming and now we decided that the second best choice was McDonnell Aircraft.
   Then, McDonnell announced a merged with Douglas. The two VS-X bidding teams, one in St. Louis and the other in Long Beach, CA, were merged but frictions developed. We were within weeks of finalizing a teaming agreement with McDonnell Douglas when negotiations broke off. We decided to team with Lockheed Aircraft.
   The CALAC VS-X team included Fred Jacques, Program Director ;Dick Heppe, Chief Engineer; Wally Weber, Marketing Manager; and a new face, Sherm Mullen - who was brought to Burbank from Lockheed Electronics, Plainfield, NJ, to develop a technical group for digital computers, software and systems. Mullen later became President of the Lockheed Skunk Works and was responsible for the F-117 and F-22 fighter programs.
   After numerous private off-site meetings at local Burbank restaurants, Univac DSD and CALAC signed an exclusive VS-X teaming agreement. Univac would be responsible for the computer and all operational programs and systems software. As part of the teaming agreement, Univac agreed to locate a technical team in Burbank, housed in Lockheed facilities.
   In 1967, the U.S. Navy awarded 12 month Concept Definition Phase contracts to CALAC and GD Convair. It was no contest. CALAC won the VS-X development and production contract for 183 aircraft and support systems in 1968. The Univac portion of the initial contracts exceeded $200 million and was the largest single award in the history of the division (at that time.) Each 1832 airborne computer that was installed in S-3A aircraft had an initial price of $1 million! The names of CALAC and Univac became synonymous with success! As part of the Univac contract with CALAC for the S-3A program, DSD established a site in Valencia, California, near the CALAC Rye Canyon Facility. Over 40 programmers and systems engineers were relocated from St. Paul and Warminster, PA to staff the new site.
   Univac DSD people directly involved in the VS-X program were Forrest Crowe, VP & General Manager, Dewaine Osman, VP, Marketing, Forrest Lowe, Marketing Director, Avionics Systems, Arnie Hendrickson, Bob Blixt, and Dan Brophy, DSD Avionics and Aerospace Engineering and Jim Rapinac. There were also many other contributors in other functional organizations.
   Univac technical, management, and marketing personnel had CALAC contractor badges that allowed open access to CALAC buildings at the Burbank airport. Access to CALAC buildings was shown on our contractor badges.
The S-3A program became one of the most successful programs in U.S. Navy history. The program was completed on schedule, within target costs and was very, very profitable to both companies. Today, over 25 years after the initial contract award, S-3B aircraft, upgraded versions of the S-3A, are still fully operational.
   In 1971, Jim Rapinac was named as General Manager, Sperry Univac, DSD, Salt Lake City, a division that supplied drone control systems and wide band data links. While in Salt Lake City, the business relationships with CALAC expanded to include the Skunk Works. We worked with Kelly Johnson and, later, his successors, Ben Rich and Sherm Mullen. The Salt Lake City group became a primary supplier of data links for the U2, SR-71 and other covert aircraft. Our long term management relationships with CALAC combined with a consistent record of or performance continued to pay dividends and was mutually beneficial and profitable to both companies.
   The current Lockheed Martin facility in Eagan has a long, successful and storied history in the global defense and aerospace industry and has survived numerous corporate changes and names including Engineering Research Associates (ERA), Remington Rand Univac (RRU), Univac Defense Systems Division, Sperry Univac Defense Products Group, Unisys, PARAMAX, Loral, and finally, Lockheed Martin MS2.
   Many current LM employees along with retired Univac DSD personnel, including me, owe our career successes, whatever they may be or have been, to the S-3A program and our association with CALAC. For some, it was their life’s work!
   I know that I speak for all retirees of Sperry Univac Defense Systems Division when I say that nothing could be more appropriate or fitting than to have the name of Lockheed Martin on Plant 8 in Eagan, MN. [Jim Rapinac]

4. ABCCC

The Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC III), loaded in a capsule aboard an EC-130E aircraft, provided an automated airborne command and control capability featuring computer generated color displays and digitally controlled communications. It went into immediate, successful service in Operation Desert Storm. It is best described by the 'system engineer', Bob Chappelear's career summary. [lab]

From Larry Bolton: These are the pictures I took at the Eglin AFB Armament Museum back in February 2007. The entrance to the ABCCC display is shown as is a couple shots of what you see just inside the door to the right of the sign. The switches are covered by a plastic sheet so you can’t actually touch the switches. There is a larger room just in back of the photograph that has the shock mounted seats. I did not get pictures of that because I recall there was a sign prohibiting pictures. I think some of the pictures by the sign show parts of that area, that is what the ABCCC display is at Eglin.

In addition to this, they had an LM JASSM missile, a JDAM bomb, a B-52, and our SR-71. They also have an A-bomb shell.
Lots of other interesting items for people who have electronic and military backgrounds.

From Larry Debelak:
Ah yes---this is ABCCC II that we replaced with the ABCCC III nomenclature---we got the Radios out of these capsules along with seven C130E A/C GFE but like the an old radiator cap story we replaced the sheet metal capsules with eight entirely new High Tech Capsules and fielded two of them just in time (5 months out of our Plant 5 factory for the 15 Jan start of the IRAQ war—two engineers flew combat mission and the 2 capsules logged 400 hours of attack operations without a failure. As the Turnkey-Prime-Contractor we made numerous upgrades [including the Intel upgrades that fixed the Scott O’Grady F16 Saga of eating grubs for over a week.] These system software refinements were proven when saving the downed F117 Pilot in a few Hours. We supported the Airborne Command Element in the Bosnia and Kosovo operations out of Aviano Italy [the longest TDY in USAF History—7 Years] with the home base in Davis Monthan AFB in Tucson AZ.

ABCCC II was fielded in Viet Nam in the 1960’s to support communications for the long haul missions over North Vietnam. It was basically a set of 23 Radios, Crypto’s, the crossbar Communications Switch in your pictures with Grease Pencils and paper maps.

By Larry Debelak: We toured the USAF Museum at WPAFB in Dayton a couple of weeks ago and I was able to talk to the folks that have one of the capsules. They told me that it was sitting on the Ramp outside the refurbishment facility next to the RB-47. As we did the behind the scenes tour we saw it but couldn’t take pictures because it is on the base proper. A WPAFB employee said that they were planning to send it to DMAFB for safer storage but still maintain ownership.

Apparently they don’t have funding or space to put it on display and the Museum has a Combat A/C Weapon, R&D and Presidential A/C focus so they don’t have any C&C displays [i.e. AWACS] and only up to the Viet Nam War/Cold war. Having said that they are planning a new very large hangar for expansion and hopefully will include the Gulf war, Bosnia/Kosovo [Longest TDY in USAF History, 7 Years]. Since there were no forces on the ground, ABCCC ran that war as the Airborne Command Element.
As you recall when Scott O’Grady got shot down, UNISYS got funding for the ABCCC updates that were successfully employed to recover the F-117 pilot. This would make a compelling story of the impact that ABCCC had as well as the AFMC Acquisition award and DCMA award for the Gulf war.

By Lowell Benson: The ABCCC III description is on-line at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/ec-130e-abccc.htm.

5. Quicklook

The QUICKLOOK II RV-1D [Mohawk] manufactured by Grumman shows a rectangular sensor pod near the end of each wing.

Inboard of the sensor pods are 150 gal droppable fuel tanks [there were never any munitions on our RV-1 aircraft.] These together with the 300 gal main fuel cell just aft of cockpit gave us a 4 hour flight capability.

I do have information about the Sperry AN/UYK-23 computers in the QUICKLOOK II aircraft. In September 1973 when I arrived at UTL in Garland, TX the system was already assembled for us to begin training and I do not remember the UYK-23 designation for the QUICKLOOK 1a that we had in the two RV-1C aircraft. QUICKLOOK 1a was made up of just the two aircraft and was a prototype system. QUICKLOOK II had 36 RV-1D's after full rollout and I know they had UYK-23's in each aircraft.

Three of my NCOs became Warrant Officers after QUICKLOOK 1a and stayed with the system until they were rolled into the Advanced Guardrail program in the RU-21 aircraft and the Mohawks retired.

CW4 Donald Nesheim, USA Ret MOS 983A, Emanations Analysis Technician, Minneapolis, MN

My general understanding of the QUICKLOOK mission for the security agencies was to fly just outside the airspace of various countries and detect the impingement of radar signals. The computer and associated database information could then locate the radar site and ascertain the type of radar. If the radar type was associated with missile launch equipment, said information was sent to various intelligence agencies via the post flight reports. [LABenson]

6. Others

6.1 Lamps -

This project put computers and systems aboard shipboard based helicopters for Anti-Submarine Warfare problems. {We need someone to write about this project/program.}

6.2 Drone Systems -

The Eagan LMCO facility manufactured the Desert Hawk surveillance drone and associated software. See the Links page for a connection to the U of MN for control research.