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Information Technology (IT) Pioneers

Retirees and former employees of Unisys, Lockheed Martin, and their predecessor companies

On this Page

  1. Topical Article Contributors
  2. 'P' Career Summaries: 2.1 Robert 'Bob' Pagac, 2.2 Larye Parkins, 2.3 Dick Petschauer, 2.4 Dr. Peter Patton, 2.5 Jane Pejsa, 2.6 Phil Phipps, 2.7 Gerald Pickering, 2.8 Mark Plait, and 2.9 Richard Prokop.
  3. 'Q' Career Summaries: 5.1 David Quiggle
  4. 'R' Career Summaries: 3.1 Jim Rapinac, 3.2 Jerry Raveling, 3.3 Al Reiter, 3.4 O. Wynn Roberts, 3.5 Dick Roessler, and 3.6 Tom Rougier.
  5. 'S' Career Summaries: 4.1 Duane Sandstrom, 4.2 Vernon Sandusky, 4.3 Norb Santoski, 4.4 Jack Sater , 4.5 Bob Scholz, 4.6 Rollie Schwitters, 4.7 Tom Sinkula, 4.8 Tom Soller, 4.9 John Spearing, 4.10 Woody Spitzmueller, 4.11 Jim Stephenson, 4.12 Bernie 'Mike' Svendsen, 4.13 Gary Sloan, 4.14 Larry L. Schmidt, and 4.15 Dale Suckstorff.


People Chapter P - S

1. Contributors of Topical Articles, P => S

47 writers have written 109 articles or tidbits, supplementing career summaries:

  • Lowell Palacek, Norm Palzer, Jeff Parker, Layre Parkins, Charles Parmele, Ken Pearson, Wes Peters; Al Peterson, Dick Petschauer, Dale Phelps, Ed Phillips, Gerald Pickering, Larry Pierson, Michael Pluimer, Jerry Proc, and Lee Purrier.
  • Jim Rapinac, John Rego, Thomas Reischel, Al Reiter, Bill Rhode, Gary Rist, Dick Roessler, Al Rollin, Paul Roselle, Doug Ross, and Bob Russell.
  • Vernon Sandusky, Jack Sater, Dave Saxerud, Ray Schleski, Lou Schlueter, Bob Scholz, Ron Schroeder, Joe Schwarz, Bill Sharf, Dave Shelander, Marc Shoquist, Jon Simon, John Skonnord,  Ron Q. Smith, Jerry Smolian, Samuel S. Snyder, Arlyn Solberg, Craig Solomonson, Gary Stanull, and Mike Svendsen.

2. Career Summaries - P:

2.1 Bob Pagac, 1967-2011.


I have worked in the defense industry for over 44 years with the “same company” in management, subcontracts, technical engineering, and field support engineering and have held a secret security clearance my entire career.

I started at Univac and while my companies’ names changed, my home base remained in St. Paul, Minnesota. Through all of the mergers and acquisitions, we went from Univac, Sperry, Burroughs, Unisys, Paramax, Loral, and finally in 1997 to Lockheed Martin.


I grew up in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and in 1961 graduated from Washington High School and directly entered Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE). I received an Electronics Technology (ECT) two year degree in 1963 and our Electrical Engineering (BSEE) four year degree in 1967.


In 1967, I started my career at Univac as a Field Engineer working out of Plant 5 on Prior Ave in St. Paul. My first field assignment was at Bell Telephone Laboratory in Whippany, NJ starting in mid 1967 which lasted until 1970. During 1969, I was the Site Manager. In 1970, I returned to St. Paul to begin training for my next field assignment for Lockheed California Company at Rye Canyon and Valencia, California. I was the field site manager at Valencia working on the S-3 aircraft hardware and software integration for this Anti-Submarine Warfare carrier-based aircraft. I worked on Lockheed’s flight line/factory at Burbank where the S-3 would be produced. I was responsible for the installation and maintenance of the initial nineteen (19) S-3 mission computers on the first 19 aircraft. I also supported the S-3 “flying test bed” which was an older P-3A four (4) engine propeller-driven aircraft. I supported Lockheed as I flew on ten (10) of those “test bed” flights.

I returned to St. Paul in 1973 and accepted an assignment in airborne program management. Maintenance management of both S-3 and P-3 support and logistics activities for airborne computers was my primary task. I managed our team of engineers during the three (3) weeks we spent in Burbank to upgrade the initial S-3 airborne computers on the aircraft.

In 1976, I accepted a position in Air Traffic Management responsible for the installation/integration, checkout, and acceptance of the New York Tracon and Enroute Airport Radar Terminal System (EARTS) airport facilities with the FAA as our customer. Our EARTS “Test Bed” was at the Farmington, Minnesota Enroute Site.

I accepted a position in our subcontracts group in 1978 with the following responsibilities:

  • -        Coordinate all subcontract activities from inception of a procurement through the proposal, negotiation, execution, delivery, and closure phases
  • -        Act as team leader on all major subcontract negotiations
  • -        Manage all required consultants
  • -        Lead all Teaming Agreements

I subcontracted with suppliers of complex electronic systems in the following countries: Japan, Germany, Israel, Egypt, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

  I returned to program management in 1982 as the Life Cycle Manager for the medium ship-based computer for the US Navy and other international users. This included integrated logistics support, spare parts, technical documentation, performance and maintenance data analysis, maintenance and technical support engineering, repair of failed parts from the various fleets, and management of the field change program.

  In 1983, I accepted a program management assignment in the international ground, surface/subsurface, and air programs group. In 1984, I became the Japanese surface/subsurface and air program manager directing all activities in the Japanese programs and proposal efforts. Because we were doing defense business in Japan, we required a Japanese Trading Company for all of the Japanese tasks on the various contracts. This particular relationship required extreme care and coordination so as to not do something embarrassing to/with the customer. Patience and understanding were required to do business in Japan. During this timeframe, I concentrated on the Japanese air side of the business interfacing with the Japanese companies Toshiba, Fujitsu, Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI), Shimadzu, Sumitomo, and Mitsui.

  We began concentrating on the Japanese P-3 upgrade effort in 1992. Japan had been building the P-3 aircraft through a license from Lockheed since 1980, and they required an upgrade to these aircraft. In 1994, we entered into a Manufacturing License Agreement (MLA) with Toshiba for the upgrade of seventy (70) of their aircraft. This was a twenty (20) year agreement to end next year in 2014. I led our team members from contracts, engineering (systems, test, and hardware), operations, quality control, training, and logistics. We implemented this MLA and delivered manufacturing processes and procedures, engineering drawings, and quality requirements necessary for Toshiba and their subcontractors Fujitsu and Shimadzu to manufacture, test, and deliver our airborne processing system to their Defense Ministry.

  In 1995, Loral purchased the defense portion of Unisys which lasted until Lockheed Martin purchased most of Loral’s defense divisions in 1997. The majority of our international airborne business was with Japan and expanded into the next decade. We delivered special test equipment and training to KHI for their lab testing of the airborne processing system that Toshiba would supply for their P-3 system upgrade. We also had a license agreement with Fujitsu to supply them with testing processes and procedures for our video display processor for their radar and software upgrade.

  In 2007, we turned our attention to Europe; Germany was ready for a sensor upgrade to their P-3 aircraft. This sensor was an EO/IR (electro optical/infra-red) unit for surface surveillance that was becoming extremely critical for the anti-piracy missions around the world, especially off of the African coast near Somalia.

We signed a contract with the German Ministry of Defense in 2009 for the procurement, installation, test, and customer acceptance of this sensor for their P-3 aircraft. I led the team that delivered this EO/IR sensor and integrated it with not only the hardware but the software, training, and documentation.

With the impending closure of Plant 8 in Eagan, I was forced to retire from Lockheed Martin in May of 2011 after more than 44 1/2 years of service because my two airborne programs were transferred to Lockheed Martin in Owego, NY.


After my retirement from Lockheed Martin in 2011; I joined the VIP Club and started doing volunteer work on the legacy documentation at Plant 8 in Eagan. I am now doing the documentation and cataloguing at the Dakota County Historical Society (DCHS) LAWSHE Memorial Museum in South St. Paul with other volunteers who had retired from Lockheed. I've also done volunteer burger grilling at the annual Club picnics in Highland Park these last three years.

2.2 Larye Parkins, 1965-1990.

I worked at METC in 1965, 1969, and 1970, on 1218s, 642Bs, the 667, and delivered the first AN/UYK-7 to Dahlgren, Virginia. I worked on the AEGIS EDM-1 project in Moorestown, NJ 1970-1974, and the Trident and SSN-688 projects in Newport, RI from 1974-1980. At Moorestown, I also helped decommission the one and only AN/UYK-8: the RCA project folks had us remove all the chassis, place the cabinet in a trash can, then reinsert the chassis for a "disposal" photo shoot.
I was "prematurely retired" from Unisys while at Submarine Base Bangor in 1989, having last worked on white papers for the AN/UYK-43 embedded disk designs.
After a brief foray into commercial software as a COBOL programmer, in 1990-91, while working on my MSE at Seattle University, I spent almost 5 years supporting ACDS test engineering on contract at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, while teaching computer science at night to pay off my graduate school bills. For so long, the 24 years I spent at Sperry and Unisys was just a mostly blacked-out section of my resume punctuated with incomprehensible acronyms, prompting prospective employers to ask, "and what makes you think you are in the same business?" Somehow, I've managed to map the non-obvious similarities onto a new career in Unix, but it wasn't easy. I think we have a lot to offer to the history of computing before Microsoft and the Personal Computer, and I've really enjoyed browsing through the personal anecdotes and chronologies on your web site.

I am about to retire "for real" from a 13-year career in Unix system administration and software engineering, most recently 8 years as an "accidental bio-informaticist" at the National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories.

In 2005, I put together a brief history of my first 40 years in computing, of which most, at that time, was with Univac/Sperry/Unisys or, later, working on combat systems test engineering for other support contractors. The PDF version is pending.

2.3 Richard Petschauer, 1956-62. , 1971 -

I was manager of the Film Memory Engineering Dept. till June 1962 when I left the company for 6 years. I started in 1956 in the Memory Dept. and was assigned to the Research group to design circuits for the first film memory project, a research type that was based on a 1955 Paper by Art Pohm and Sidney Rubens. Later we got a project from the Air Force to develop a non destructive read out (NDRO) memory [also non volatile] that could replace the drum memories used in a missile guidance. Major Gerry Probst was Air Force project manager. At that time a department was set up in engineering to do this. The Research Dept. continued with its separate activity. I was named supervisor of circuit design in the dept., and about two years later the manager.
My film memory paper {Editor’s Note: See the Engineering, Memory page.} could use some names of some of the people involved. For example I was car pooling those days with Earl Joseph and Leo Kennedy. One day I told them we can now build a very fast small thin film memory. Earl was on a task force to define the commercial 1107 computer at the time, and that is how the 1107 got it. Even today, the 1100 series still has a small fast memory besides the main memory.
I came back in 1971 to the Roseville Group. I have some good stories about those times too. Later a wrote a booklet summarizing the logic and memory technology from the 1103 to about the 1190. At one time there was a copy in the company library. I have a copy. I also have a copy of my 1961 paper at the Western Joint Computer Conference on the first multi-plane thin film memory ever made. At that time there were only two major computer conferences a year.  

2.4 Dr. Peter Patton, 1960-7x

Lowell, I still remember fondly our cooperation on the AN/UYK-7 cache memory studies. you were a great guy to work for. I went to St Paul as principal programmer in 1961 to checkout the fleet test system on the Oriskany using the original NTDS computer AN/USQ-17 designed by Seymour Cray. We then redid it as the USQ-20, adding modern features [at that time] like interrupts and packaged it vertically. The Q-17 used monitored buffers for Input/Output control. I had to rewrite the CS-1 compiler with Clyde Allen for the Q-20. I did the first 418 demo with Vic Benda and later consulted for both NAVSEC and Univac on the AN/UYK-7 and then again on the AN-UYK-43. I remember all those guys fondly: Doc (George) Chapin, Leon Findley, Clyde Allen, Don Ream, Paul Hoskins, Cmdr Leichtweis, and Bill Rock. Those were the days, Lowell.

The first computer at the University of Minnesota was the Univac 1103 and the center there was started by Dr. Marvin Stein as the Numerical Analysis Center. I think Marv came from Northrop in CA where he ran an 1103 for aerospace research. As a matter of fact I vaguely remember he came with the machine [which was traded in for a new1103A at Northrop] when Univac gave the used trade-in to the University. At the time (1958) I was in charge of systems programming at Boeing where we wrote our own compilers/interpreters. Boeing bought an 1103A at the same time to go alongside the new IBM 704 which replaced an IBM 701. That too is an interesting Univac story.

I do think you should highlight the fact that the 1103 was the beginning of computing at the University of Minnesota and that the University has gone on from that start to achieve world recognition. They never used anything but a Seymour Cray designed machine, Univac 1103, CDC 1604, CDC 6600, Cyber 76, Cray 1 and a Cray 2. When Marv Stein left the position as director of computing to start up the their Computer Science Department in 1971 he recommended me as his successor. [At that time I had left Univac to join Vic Benda and Fred Lang (creator of Univac's first FAA On-Line system using the file computer and those little paper strips] to join Aires International (AiC) as General Manager.] I was very flattered. I was a "fringe character" for the first three but I was director of computing for the last three machines. I am an old man now, Lowell, and I have a lot of stories. Please advise what topics I should concentrate on to keep from just giving a stream of consciousness memory dump. You remember how difficult memory dumps are to understand!

When CDC separated from Univac they took the 490 drawings with them, and as later proved in the court room, changed the word and bus length from 30 bits to 48 bits and brought out the 1604. The University was one of the first, if not the very first installations. The Univac attorney took 1604 and 490 drawings to the courtroom window, superimposed them and showed that the only changes were the company logos in the lower right hand corner and all the single line drawings of the busses were changed from /30 to /48. A rather convincing argument, I thought.

All the best, Pete Patton

Lowell, I misspoke when I called Fred Lang's FAA project the "OnLine" system. Of course it was the EnRoute System. He used the Univac File Computer which succeeded the old RemRand mechanical punched card units. The machine kept track of all flights in an FAA airspace control area and was updated by radar and/or manual inputs. It printed out little strips of paper about 3/4" by 8" and these were posted in slots on the ATC's "board" and moved about manually as flights took off/landed, entered/left airspace, etc.

Fred left Univac to start the first software company Aires International with Rich Daly. When all the business went to DC he sold out to Daly and started Analysts International Corp. He raided programmers from Univac Military Division to staff his new company. For many years his main customer was CDC although AiC built system and applications software for many other Twin Cities firms as well.  Pete 

2.5 Jane Pejsa, 1956-1961

Editor's note: Jane is noted on a poster board as part of the Minnesota History Center's " Minnesota's Greatest Generation" exhibit. The following is an excerpt from the story which she sent to Dick Lundgren.}

Regarding getting a job in the first place:

Then one day I received a phone call from my Carleton Math Professor. This was in mid-year 1956. He asked me, “Are you still working in that dippy job at the phone company?” And of course I was. He told me to get myself over to a place in St. Paul called Remington Rand, where one of his women math majors, a year ahead of me, had just signed on. And so I did. I was promptly hired, on my own terms—3 full days a week—since I had a small child at home.

Regarding the new working home:

What an absolutely wonderful place I found my new working home. It had originally, during WWII, been a glider factory, and more recently the home of a new “computer” firm ERA. It was in the process of acquiring new ownership and a new name. Mr. Norris and several other senior employees had left to start a firm that would become very famous—Control Data. Thus the glider factory crowd had been acquired by Remington Rand and at the time I joined was being taken over by Univac. That is how I remember it though this may be backwards.

I was given a table next to a wall—upper half a glass wall--in a tiny office with my boss Jules Mercel, clearly a very, very intelligent man. I spent the first days studying what this computer, the Univac Scientific, was all about. It was being built under government contract. I even had a title—Systems Analyst—though I had no idea what the title meant. I was a new programmer. And of course this was machine language—binary, which we early interpreted in octal. Octal arithmetic came very easily to me. Our programming tasks included putting the contents of numbered stored locations, into the accumulator and at least two other registers, removing them, and doing other stunts to simulate addition, subtraction, multiplication, and—the most difficult—division.

Regarding the work environment:

I am sure that no two doors in the entire building were the same. Probably no two desks were the same. This giant computer comprised several large metal floor-standing metal containers, with a working table standing among them, all this housed in a large room. On the table stood a keyboard to punch paper tape with our octal numbers, pairs of scissors and glue pots, plus a little machine to secure pieces of paper tape, as we corrected and otherwise changed our little programs. Imagine, at this time we still did not have a way of saying directly “add,” “subtract”, “multiply”, “divide.” Each day we signed up for a stint on the computer to try out our latest coding. There was always a lineup for this privilege. I believe there was also the possibility of “testing,” a means of developing a meaningful set of commands, particularly in the case of division. In hot weather, even with air conditioning, the Univac Scientific very early would be shut down because of heat. I think of all the time wasted that year in shutdowns and waiting for one’s turn at the Computer.

For all the problems and the makeshift work areas, the glider factory was the most exciting place I had ever encountered. Then one day my boss Jules Mercel told me he was leaving for California, to join the Rand Corporation. I knew he was very, very smart as well as tolerant of this babe in the woods. I remember him storming into our little office, slamming the door and saying, “I have never attended a meeting out of which came a new idea. This meeting was no different.

Regarding relocation and a new boss:

Very soon after my boss left, our whole operation was moved to the Griggs-Midway building on University Avenue. I believe the computer pieces were also moved. This time we programmers took over a part of an entire empty floor, no partitions of any kind. I don’t even remember for whom I worked at that time. All I remember was that everyone from the top to the bottom took 2 to 2.5-hour lunch hours and no one seemed to care. (I did not. Somehow this really disturbed me.) Apparently the firm was rolling in money at this time. We were now moving into not only government money but also some private contracts.

Eventually we were given a proper office and my new boss was Earl C. Joseph. We were four women who worked under him and we all sat with him in a nice modern little office. As you may recall, Earl Joseph sometime later left Univac and launched himself into a new career. He really defined and founded the whole area of Futurists, an area that now seems to thrive. About a decade ago I attended one of his lectures. I reminded him that I had worked for him for about 6 months. He, however, had no idea who I was. So it goes.

Regarding her target computer and a new programming language

This was now the first months of 1957. The Univac Scientific was now the 1103, which presumably had been completed. We were together, now designing software, still in machine code, to test what was new in the emerging 1103A. Presently we were again on the move, this time to a very pleasant building out on Mississippi Drive in St. Paul, right at the corner of Ford Parkway and the river. I recall it was one-storey with large broad show windows facing west and south. Possibly it had previously been a show room of some kind. From the beginning it was just temporary since Univac had started construction of a major plant downstream on the river. Probably I worked here just a few weeks. What is memorable is the fact that we all were pitching in to develop a new high-level language that would take over the world. We all knew that IBM was equally busy on its new high-level language. I was already convinced that Univac would lose. And of course it did, for IBM’s Fortran did take over the scientific world. I wish I could remember the name given to the language Univac was trying to develop.

I worked just a few weeks at the Ford Parkway plant, for my second child was scheduled soon to be born. Actually he arrived three weeks late. I could have stayed longer. I had no interest in coming back after the baby was born. The new plant seemed too far away from Old Lowry Hill in Minneapolis, where we had built a little house. Presumably this was the end of my computer life.” [It wasn’t.] 

2.6 Phil Phipps, 1955-1989

  1. Graduated from Willamette University, 1947-1951, with double major in Math and Physics. GPA above 3.5/4.0
  2. Attended Iowa State College, 1951-1953, for an MA degree in Nuclear Physics. Had an assistantship working for the AEC. My research and thesis was focused on “Short half-lives (a few seconds) of isotopes produced by photo nuclear reactions" using the AEC Laboratory 60 MEV synchrotron.
  3. Attended MIT, 1953-1955, in Applied Math and obtained a MS degree. My thesis was on the machine solutions to a non-linear partial differential heat equation with a nearby singularity boundary. I then left MIT to go to work in the computer field.
  4. 1955—Applied for work at ERA and reported for work at Remington Rand/Univac/Sperry Rand/ UNISYS until November 1989 at retirement. Initially worked with a team on programming the Univac 1103 to solve large (100 x 100) sparse linear programming problems.
  5. 1955-1960—Worked with the Athena Ground Guidance computer as supervisor for guidance software development for the Titan I missile. Initially, directed and trained programmers to do fixed point arithmetic for the ground guidance equations developed by Bell Telephone Labs. The Athena was an 8192 16-bit word capacity drum computer with a small core memory of 256 24-bit words. Other guidance programs were developed by the group included the Thor Delta missions of the Air Force. As part of the software development considerable support software tools were designed to compile, test, checkout, and validate/exercise the guidance computer software. Trajectory simulated guidance data on the 1103 was designed to generate the radar data that the computer would see in an actual mission. That radar data, which took about 3 hours to compute, was then punched into a thousand feet of paper tape and run on a high speed tape handler to supply the radar data to the Athena in the real time of 5 minutes. The expected guidance commands were generated from the 1103 version of the Athena guidance program were also punched into the paper tape. The tape handler was designed to provide the simulated radar data to the Athena and compare the exact guidance commands from the Athena with those that came from the 1103 simulation. It worked like a charm provided the tape didn’t break or a bit of chaff hadn’t stuck in any of the holes in the tape!
  6. 1960-1969—Performed IR&D research on applying Univac computers to new anticipated missile and satellite missions. This entailed visiting Navy and Air Force offices and labs to discuss anticipated new/needed functions the better to size the future computer needs.
  7. Wrote the winning proposal for the radar directed satellite/re-entry vehicle automatic acquisition software/system for Air Force’s Atlantic Missile Range to be stationed at the Ascension Island. I was personally responsible for the mathematics to do this. The software group that I directed used the militarized 1206 computer. The problem to be solved was to use acquisition data relayed from Cape Canaveral to a remote site to direct the FPS-16 radar to automatically acquire and track the approaching space vehicle, track the vehicle through re-entry and splash-down, then report the splash-down point coordinates. Tracking in the re-entry phase had to be open-loop, i.e., the radar was “blind” during that phase due to the plasma generated by the heat of re-entry. After the blackout period the radar was directed to re-acquire the vehicle. At first the radar operator did not trust the computer and insisted on controlling the re-acquisition himself, which most of the time failed so the exact splash-down coordinates could not be determined. In later tests the operator in desperation gave permission for the computer to control the re-acquisition, which it did perfectly the first time! The computer had been tracking the vehicle open loop prior to re-entry. If the space vehicle was just to fly over, the new acquisition data, orbital parameters were relayed to further down-range tracking sites. The next site was in South Africa.
    Later, a programming support group was established at Cape Canaveral as an extension of our St Paul group. Bernie Jansen headed up that liaison task. Even later a similar group was established at the Pacific Missile Range at Pt. Magu. The latter supported many, many launches including range safety functions. They guided over 500 launches without a single mishap due to computer or software malfunction!
  8. Managed the follow-on software development for further downrange mobile van mounted acquisition/tracking sites. Manny Block was the able manager for the integration of software and computer equipment for those projects. The first such site we installed was for the upgrading of the South Africa site.
  9. 1962-1963—Participated in the proposal and management of the software development group for the ARIS tracking ships. Sperry Gyro, the prime, provided the analysis and equations. The software group did the fixed point scaling, programming, checkout and integration with the other ship mission hardware. The accuracy of the tracking algorithms had to be at least an order of magnitude better than was used for land based acquisition and tracking. The ARIS ship had to spend at least two weeks on station just surveying in their location by triangulating various stars to get the location of the tracking site to within about 100 feet! The nine degrees of freedom the ship's hull flexure experienced had to be computed and accounted for while tracking stars or mission satellites.
  10. Managed the guidance software development group for various Air Force programs using the 1824 on board guidance computer. Again, fixed point scaling of the guidance equations was needed. The biggest challenge for the programmers was to “shoe horn” all the programs into the 1824 memory; every byte and bit was needed!
  11. 1960-1969—Performed analysis of requirements studies and proposals for undersea computer applications. The main candidate application was for the passive submarine sonar station. Underwater acoustics, digital signal processing, target classification aids and display applications were needed to be understood and integrated into the submarine environment. In addition, from the passive sonar data over time the target track had to be developed automatically. During this time I participated in the company’s digital UNIVAC 1616 HFFT computer design.
  12. This understanding by the software and analysis group was later used to develop software algorithms for target tracking of under and surface targets for buoy operation for the S-3A ASW plane.
  13. 1971-1975—My analysis group developed the first digital MAD detection and location algorithms for the LAMPS helicopter project. This digital system was later tested and found to be as good as or better than the trained MAD operator in actual field tests. And later, algorithm and software were development for the cryogenic MAD system, which was designed and developed at Unisys, St Paul.
  14. 1974-1975—Participated on the initial requirements for the UNIVAC commercial 1108/array Processor.
  15. 1974-1976—Worked on algorithm and simulation development for computer-aided anti-aircraft gun tracking and firing for 20 and 35 mm guns in a new business venture.
  16. Managed the Federal Railroad Agency feasibility study for real-time analysis of acoustic signals for the rail inspection vehicle study contract. We developed the digital anomaly detection and classification of rail flaws from multiple ultrasonic acoustic returns from energy pulses fired into the rail at various angles. The objective was to determine what digital computer capability was needed for real-time processing on board a rail inspection car running at 30 mph. It turned out a new computer design would have been required to handle the computation load even at 5 mph! The current hardware technology was not up to the job at that time.
  17. Proposed, and was awarded the development of an automatic real-time manual Morse code translator from signals taken directly off the air. The customer was the Air Force. The system had to be adaptive to the operator’s “fist” and variable rate of transmission that characterized the human sending operator.
  18. Personally participated in a number of highly classified digital signal processing contract studies for prime contractors with whom Unisys was teamed.
  19. Later I planned and carried out IR&D application research projects in anticipation of military RFPs and new business planning. Acted as liaison in signal processing and artificial intelligence technology (1971-1982) with the Sperry Research Center in Sudbury, Massachusetts.
  20. 1980-1989—Formed, developed, hired and helped train the artificial intelligence (AI) application group using IR&D funds in order to help qualify DSD for advanced military tactical contracts requiring that capability. When contracts were won, one or more of my group would be loaned to the project to help incorporate whatever AI techniques would be appropriate.
  21. 1987-1988—Participated in an NSIA government-sponsored industry committee “The Anti-Submarine Warfare Committee” to determine the future role of digital undersea surveillance in ASW. This was a 2-year program.
    Helped develop several probability decision analysis methods using multiple information sources that were “noisy” and often contradictory. This was needed for multi-sensor data fusion processing, particularly for target tracking. The methods included: Bayesian conditional probability, Dempster-Shafer statistics.

It should be noted that throughout many of these accomplishments, I had the help and leadership of a lot of wonderful, dedicated people. Many, many thanks are due to all of them.

2.7 Gerald Pickering,

I am very proud of my 32 ½ years with Univac. It is the only company I ever worked for. By and large I felt that Univac could accomplish technically anything it set out to do; more than anything the United Airlines Project was proof of that. I am particularly proud of my contributions to NTDS, the turning of International into a profitable division, unbundling the Univac product lines and in essence turning Univac commercial from strictly a seller of hardware into a provider of system services.

I am proud to have ended my career with an involvement with NEXRAD which proved Sperry was the provider of state-of-the-art system solutions. Each and every time I watch a weather report tracking a dangerous storm, I must constrain myself from jumping up and proclaiming to everyone within listening distance: "That's NEXRAD at work. I had a hand in developing it." A more complete ‘career summary’ is in the Article for the Month, “CREATIVITY-SUCCESS-OBSCURITY”.  

2.8 Mark Plait, 1968-1989

I started with Univac in 1968 and worked in Graphic Arts, Documentation Control, Configuration Management, and the Trident program as a Quality Engineer during my tenure with Univac/Unisys, until 1989, 21 years later. I greatly enjoyed my time on the Trident program working with Bill Techtmann, Jack Lavers, Vic Patras, Bob Luken, Ray Doehling and many others over the years.  Mark Plait

2.9 Richard Prokop, 1963-1964

I worked at UNIVAC, plant 3, in St. Paul in 1963-1964. I did wiring and rework on night shift. My boss was Merle Holger. It was a great job. I often wondered what happened to Merle. I've got some pictures and other stuff saved somewhere. We worked on the NIKE/ZEUS program, you have an interesting web page. I'll be checking back. take care! 

5. Career Summaries - Q:

5.1. David Quiggle, 1969 - 1996

I started with UNIVAC Defense Systems in Eagan in 1969 and lived through all the rest of the name changes up through Lockheed Martin.  I left LM in 1996 having spent ALL of that time in the field working as a Field Engineer supporting various Defense and NASA contracts.  Consequently, I had very little "face time" with the "in-house" corporation with the exception of those folks I interfaced closely with on those projects.  Some folks I worked for over the years include Jerry Sargent, George Fedor, Curt Anderson, Roger Feichtinger, Larry Koral, Don Neuman and Dave Dzubay to name a few.  Others that I worked with include Leo Valley, Bob Kroeger, Jim Inda, Roger Engle and many others too numerous to mention.  Projects supported include the RTS Satellite Control Facilities, NASA/JPL Deep Space Project, and the B-2 Bomber.  Work sites include field engineering support at Palo Alto CA, Kodiak Alaska, Kaena Point Hawaii, New Boston New Hampshire, Seychelles Islands Indian Ocean, Valencia CA, Pasadena CA, Cape Canaveral FL, Cebreros Spain, Sunnyvale CA, Pueblo CO, Pico Rivera CA and Seattle WA.  As you may guess, my last service with the company (then Lockheed Martin) occurred while in Boeing territory in Seattle.  When the B-2 project ended I was left with the choice of finally returning to Eagan MN or changing jobs to avoid up-rooting my growing family in Seattle.  At that time, the family roots were set so here we remain in the Seattle area.

I must say I thoroughly enjoyed and appreciated my entire 27 years with the company.  It was a very gratifying job that afforded ample opportunity for travel and worldly experience far beyond my Minnesota upbringing and U of MN education.  I keep fond memories of all those I encountered on this journey.  And I did work another 16 years with the Boeing company before retiring from the workforce for good.  Now I happily keep busy playing golf, skiing and still traveling in my retirement years.  It would be very hard for me to write a better ending for this journey.

Please keep me on your non-member list as I will try to join in a picnic or other activity whenever it coincides with an occasional visit to Minnesota.

David M. Quiggle, Univac-LM 1969-1996 posted 12/17/2015

3. Career Summaries - R:

3.1 Jim Rapinac, 1961-1987

1961 to 1987 Career Summary. Corporate names were Remington Rand Univac, Sperry Rand Univac, Sperry Univac DSD, Sperry DSD, and UNISYS - briefly.
   July 1961 - Joined Remington Rand Univac as Production Planner for ADD, Advanced Digital Device, an airborne computer for ICBM guidance. Project was later cancelled by the Air Force.
   1962 - Assigned as Production Coordinator for CP-667 Program.
   1963 - Became a PERT Planning Engineer under Lyle Franklin who reported to Gerry Brings. I did the CP-667 Pert Planning.
   1964 - Transferred to Navy Avionics Marketing and reported to M. R. Clement Jr., who reported to Vern Leas. Assigned to ANEW, the development program for a digital version of the P-3C ASW aircraft.
   1966-70 - Group Manager, Avionics Marketing
   1970-71 - Director, Marketing, Salt Lake City Operations
   1972-74- General Manager, Special Programs, Salt Lake City
   1974-1978 - General Manager, Technical Services Division, St. Paul, MN
   1978-1985 - Vice President, Marketing & Sales, Sperry Univac DSD
   1985-1987 - Vice President, Systems Operations, Sperry Defense Products Group and later - UNISYS.
   April, 1987 - Resigned for personal reasons. At this time I was responsible for Avionics Systems, Surface Systems, Undersea Systems, Ground Systems, Field Engineering, International Operations, and Canadian Operations.
   I served under the following DSD Vice President/General Managers before resigning: Bob McDonald, Gerry Probst, Forrest Crowe, Dick Gehring, Ernie Hams, Dick Seaberg, and Bill Geiger/Ed Decker.

Career Highpoints and Impact Items
   1966 - Won P-3C CP-901 Computer production and operational software contracts. Over 400 CP-901’s were produced. CP-901 was the first high volume airborne computer on the market.
   1968 - Teamed with Lockheed Aircraft and won S-3A 1832 Computer production and operational software contracts, the largest single DSD contract at that time.
   1972 - As General Manager, Special Programs, Salt Lake City, shut down unprofitable Sergeant and Shrike missile lines and focused on wide band airborne data links and UAV microwave control and guidance systems. This division, now part of L-3 Communications, is a leading supplier of tactical data links with over $300M in annual revenues.
   1974-78 As General Manager, led the growth of Technical Services Division from a base of 300 professionals to over 1100 professionals over 4 years with corresponding growth in revenues and profits.
   1983 - DSD bookings exceeded $600 million and we won 5 major new business programs over the space of 5 months including UYK-44 production, UYK-43 production, Canadian Patrol Frigate program, AYK-14 second source production, and CP-890 Poseidon Computer production.

Leading Technology Items:
   CP-667 Computer Development: The U.S. Navy’s first 36 bit military computer with 32 I/O channels and mil-spec approved wire wrapped back panels.
   S-3A 1832 Computer: The first and only airborne computer with thin film memory.
   X-Ray Enhancement Program: This program provided for early detection of breast cancer using 1218 computers and Jet Propulsion Lab image enhancement software. This system, located at the DSD facility in Valencia, CA. detected breast cancer in retrospective studies of enhanced mammogram x-rays 3 years earlier than with other detection methods. Program was terminated by Sperry Corp. in 1975 due to potential medical liability problems.
   Canadian SHINPADS: The first shipboard digital data bus that was used on the Canadian Frigate Program (CPF) along with the UYK-502 computer designed for CPF and produced in Winnipeg, Canada. 

3.2 Jerry Raveling, 1976-1987

   In July 1976, I was hired by Clyde Allen, Director of Engineering Programs. His organization was principally responsible for maintaining and enhancing the support software suite that was used by the USN and our allies who used the AN/UYK-7 and AN/UYK-20 computers. By that time, I had almost 20 years' experience with two large software contractors working on military systems. I was familiar with most of the existing military standards and specifications applicable to hardware and software development and support and had prepared and implemented without the benefit of software based standards, Software Configuration Management (SCM) and Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Plans and Procedures for several large-scale U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force systems. Shortly before my job interview, the Department of Defense had issued DoD Directive 5000.29, Management of Computer Resources in Major Systems. Implementation of the directive would require that computer software would be managed as a Configuration Item (CI), and be subject to a disciplined development approach equal to that which was required for system hardware. Software was no longer going to be the forgotten step-child in the development of computer systems, but would be recognized as a critical element in the overall effectiveness of the system.
   In the next few years, there was a virtual explosion of computer systems initiatives. The USN and USAF published software development standards which establish format and content requirements for software requirements and design documentation, SCM and SQA Plans, and a new software development life cycle. Software language and computer architecture standards were proposed. Terminology for classification of military systems evolved from computer systems to “Mission Critical Computer Resources (MCCR)”. Computers and software were identified as crucial elements in developing military systems which would compensate for the perceived numerical superiority of our potential enemies by developing systems that would serve as “force multipliers”.
   New SCM and SQA standards were developed and published. The introduction of microprocessors to military systems created management visibility issues: Was the application hardware or software intensive? How would the software (aka firmware) be documented, tested, and controlled and by whom? The concept of conducting Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) or internal contractor V&V was adopted by various large system developments to improve quality and system reliability. A new DoD standard higher order language, i.e. Ada, was developed and proposed to replace existing service language standards. The Joint Logistics Commanders (JLC) became actively involved in defining requirements to ensure effective Post Deployment Software Support (PDSS). NASA began to move, for the first time, to establish computer software standards to support the International Space Station development. The DoD published their own Software Development Standard (DOD-STD-2167/2167A) and Software Quality Assurance Standard (DoD-STD-2168). Finally, commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software were making in-roads into military combat systems. The latter development posed a direct threat to our core business of producing ruggedized military computers and using standardized USAF and USN software.
   With the support of Clyde Allen, Dick Seaberg, Bill Geiger, Ed Decker, and my supervisors from 1979-1987: Jim Kiwus [Product Planning], Pat Casey [TSD], Neil Hahn [R&D Marketing], Bob Bro [System Design Engineering], Jim Olijinek [System Development], and Dick Johnson [Planning and Marketing Resources]; I was able to pursue an active role in industry/government relations. In this position I was able to establish personal contact with DoD, Services, and industry leaders. This allowed me to communicate to Sperry Univac, Sperry, and Unisys management and technical personnel the perceived impact of the DoD/Services computer resources initiatives on current and future system development, contract management, and the development of supporting technology. I was also able to distribute review and final copies of applicable directives and standards within the corporation and coordinate the submittal of review comments to the appropriate government agencies. Further, I worked to try influence, in a positive manner, the impact of the DoD/Service initiatives on our short- and long-term business plans.
   I was able to apply the knowledge I had gained in performing these activities to the day-to-day technical functions I performed. Examples: proposal preparation support, proposal Red Team reviews, briefings to Sperry Univac, Sperry, and Unisys management and technical personnel and to our current or potential customer base, preparation of project SCM and SQA plans, preparation of a brochure and technical briefings for Dick Seaberg in support of the benefits of USN computer hardware and software standardization, participation in corporate task forces including Future Systems Planning and Analysis, Technology Action Team, and Next Generation Embedded Computer Task Force, and preparation of an Industry/Government Network Plan to extend the corporation’s involvement in current government/industry actions and programs.
   My eleven year career with Sperry Univac, Sperry, and Unisys from 1976 to 1987 were wonderful years. I was given the opportunity to learn a great deal about the various aspects of the operations of a large computer hardware and software company, to interact with a talented group of upper and mid-level managers, and accomplished technical personnel working together to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing computer system development and support environment, to gain recognition as a corporate professional and leader within the government/ industry management and technical community, and to know that my contributions made Sperry Univac, Sperry, and Unisys better companies: companies which made a positive impact on the defense of the nation.

3.3 Al Reiter, 1954-1988

Al’s work history is part of two web pages which he created beginning in 2004, we've captured them here in pdf format. The first page is the UNIVAC I history from his viewpoint blue page. The second page is his relationship and the relationship of others to the UNIVAC I, yellow page.

A most interesting part of history is contained on this second page: “Univac II was built in St Paul, MN from a Univac I (serial #16) that was shipped from the factory in Philadelphia to St Paul in 1955. That prototype Univac II went into operation at Sperry Univac's Plant 5 located on Prior Ave in St Paul. I knew three of the people that programmed on that computer, Willis Unke, Bibsy Kinghorn and my late wife Mildred. I still see Willis and Bibsy every now and then. There is a picture of that Univac II in the Photo section of the blue page.”  


3.4 O. Wynn Roberts

Mr. Roberts' career summary is 6.5 pages, too long to fit on this page, therefore it is attached hereto as the OWRoberts file. Names of the people mentioned therein whom he worked with and for may be in the next index update.

3.5 Dick Roessler, 1956-1989.

   I am very grateful for having been associated with UNIVAC/Sperry/Unisys (The Company) organizations for over 33 years. It has been an absolute delight to have been deeply immersed in the transition from analog electronics to digital electronics by our customers and our company in this period of time. I’d like to summarize several personal development opportunities which had a rather significant impact on my personal growth and contributions to the company and the community:

Farwell Electric Company – Upon graduation from high school in 1947, I was employed by two brothers who had formed a small electrical business in a rural community near Madison, WI. In this post Word War II era, the United States had undertaken a mission and given a political and economic priority to the Rural Electrification of America (REA). This priority gave rural America an opportunity to recover from the depression and war economy and to upgrade their farms. It also provided me an opportunity to be involved in and develop skills supporting the electrical, consumer appliance and plumbing needs of the community. Lesson Learned – At an early age the importance of providing competent and cost effective customer service was demonstrated repeatedly by my employers. Not only was I learning the important elements of Ohms Law, but also that providing prompt and effective service to farmers and small town consumers, was giving their issues and malfunctions a high priority. Technical competence and giving priorities to customers was the daily mission. This two-year lesson in customer satisfaction was helpful in my future career at The Company especially in customer service and field engineering disciplines as a continued cultural theme.

   U.S. Navy – In 1949 it became more obvious that I needed to achieve some post secondary academic accomplishments. School year 1949/1950, found me trying to adjust to the University of Wisconsin-Madison by enrolling in their ILS (Integrated Liberal Studies) program. That turned out not to be a good academic fit for me. When the relationships between the U. S. and North Korean governments soured, my interest in enlisting in the U. S. Navy was heightened. Navy recruiters were anticipating military action and were trying to sell four year enlistments to eligible men. My entrance exams were good enough so my enlistment was as an Electronic Field Seaman Recruit. Boot Camp at Great Lakes in the spring of 1950, was followed by Electronic Technician Class A School. This was my welcome into the Navy. My first Navy billet was a two year one as a Ships Repair Technician in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba functioning as a shore-based logistic resource for Atlantic Fleet vessels. Upon successful completion of duty in Cuba, an assignment began as a lead Electronic Technician aboard the USS Stormes (DD-780) which was in a Destroyer squadron in DESLANT with home port in Norfolk. The fleet was still trying to determine the dimensions of responsibility of Electronic Techs relative to their responsibilities vs. that of Radio Communications, Sonar, Radar & IFF technical disciplines. Lessons Learned – This immersion in Fleet issues in the logistical support of military systems was of great value in my experience base. It also permitted me to become familiar with a new opportunity. Broadcast Engineering! While stationed at GTMO Bay, one of my duties was to be the chief engineer of a 250 watt AFRS AM station. The four years experience in the Navy, were invaluable in my future assignments.

   Technical College – With an honorable discharge and the GI Bill of Rights in my pocket, 1954 found me enrolled at DeVry Technical Institute in Chicago, IL. My goal was to graduate in two years from DeVry with an Electronic Design Diploma and our FCC Broadcast Engineer License added to my portfolio of experience. Spring of 1956 found graduation from DeVry had been accomplished and our FCC issued First Class Radio/Telephone with Radar Endorsement was a reality. Opportunities for career moves into the electronics field, was a seller’s market. Pursuit of a career in broadcasting was my goal. An NBC affiliate in Chicago offered me a position assisting them in transitioning from Black & White to Color broadcasting.

Lesson Learned – The curricula for the Electronic Design was presented in a very structured manner. We had classes every day year round except for a few days of no classes on some holidays such as Christmas. This academic pursuit was an excellent method for a graduate to enter and exit their Institute with a diploma in just over two years. Each morning we had lectures on the curricula and the afternoon was dedicated to associated Lab projects. Further, their approach was very systematic. On each assigned project the following steps were followed: 1. Design criteria was established and design completed; 2. Selection of Components and Product build of project was achieved; 3. Product testing to design criteria was achieved; and 4. Documentation of the product with diagrams, test tables, etc. was criteria for instructor evaluation & grading as project closure is achieved. Design of a B/W 21 inch TV was our final lab project. We followed the 4 step process outlined above. This left me with a good feeling for the value of good technical colleges and institutes in society!

  Why The Company – My offer from NBC for a career in broadcasting was turned down by me after some agonizing hours of evaluation. Interviews in Chicago by Convair’s; Martin Aircraft; Westinghouse; FM stations in Illinois & Minnesota, General Electric; etc. were often followed by job offers. But an interview by Roy Jampsa of The Company in St. Paul was a turning point in my life. He offered a position as a Product Test Technician for the Model 0 File Computer being built in St. Paul. Lesson Learned --- The opportunity to become involved in the digitizing of electronics was too good an opportunity to pass up. The trade-off between Color TV Broadcasting and the new field of Computers was a tough decision. But off to St. Paul we went (Norma, and infant son Jeff).

   Career Growth– My first day at The Company, found Mr. Jampsa had enrolled me in a Model 0 File Computer class which had started that day. It was held in Plant Four which was in the Griggs Midway building on University Ave. This commercial computer was intended to be an entry level computer possessing business capabilities. Our instructor was “Stretch” Renecker who was a former submariner skipper and filled us with his interesting WW II combat highlights. We were studying the programming and maintenance of a computer which had not satisfied sign-off criteria on its design! But my classmates in class were techs assigned to field engineering and to production testing. So because the design schematics and drawings were changing constantly, it provided us an opportunity to review and understand the impact for the changes! Good experience in electronic design analysis.

   The Company Career Opportunities – Not enough good things can be said about the career opportunities provided to me in my 33 years with The Company. My company Professional Staff Data Sheet lists 32 changes in “Title and Principal Duties” during that career. This probably happened because of the rapid growth within the computer main frame products and systems industries and the personal experiences brought to the table. It would be boring for the reader for me to even attempt to list them but I would like walk the reader through some of opportunities and changes made: Programming & Maintenance Instructor; Reliability Engineering; Field Engineering; Customer Services; Operations Planning; Sales in Civilian Agencies; Systems Engineering; Reliability Assurance; Field Operations; Product & Systems Assurance; and a variety of Administrative, short term special assignments.

   Memorable Specific Assignments
1. Teaching my first Computer Programming and Maintenance Class. Being able to communicate the fundamentals of a mainframe computer to students permitting them to understand the Boolean Algebra and Logic was a very challenging first.
2. Assignment as Proficiency Test Engineer on Athena Computer. This project was funded by the Air Force Ballistic Missile Command to develop a proficiency exercising program for testing the pro’s and con’s of using operational deployed weapons systems for training purposes. Athena passed with flying colors because of its high reliability. Other Titan contractors didn’t fare so well. Exercising operational, deployed weapons systems was discontinued because of potential for serious degradation of system performance.
3. Role in a leadership role in Field Engineering & Customer Service departments. It was very gratifying over the years to observe the competence and diligence of the many men and women that performed their various customer support roles so effectively. In this I am not limiting it to our St. Paul based pursuit of technical manuals; provisioning documents; spare parts; installation design; technical support; test software; integrated logistic support; technical training; etc. Gratitude is extended to those personnel on-site at customer sites successfully integrating and supporting sites around the world. Some very difficult tasks were performed during some troubling Cold War years. Hats off to each one of you…

   Management Encouraged Volunteer Positions – Beginning when R. E. McDonald was VP & GM, our company management encouraged becoming involved in community activities. Feelings of management seemed to be that even though our company did not have the local image of a 3M, we could have an impact on community forums to bring about social change. Frequently I felt as though my access by Jack Nichols on community activities was part of the dual badge system! So again I could bore the reader with a long listing of volunteer activities during my 33 years. But I’ll send verbal accolades to the Bob McDonald’s, Dick Gehring’s, Dick Seaberg’s, and Bill Geiger’s who were avid promoters of the rewards to individual volunteers, to the company and to the community for contributions that time, talent and treasure made. And I’ll close by saying The Company continues to support community activities by its continuing involvement of employees but also the magnitude of contributions made by our retired colleagues.

   Post The Company Career – When leaving The Company, I realized that at 60 years of age, there were many technical and management opportunities left. Exploring teaching opportunities at metro colleges and university found me being graded with + for subject skill credentials but a – for Academic credentials at each of the schools. Dr. James Bensen, of Dunwoody, learned of my interest then recruited me to join him at Dunwoody Institute in Minneapolis. My career with them began as a volunteer in November of 1990 concentrating on developing a five year plan and our operating plan for them. It was his vision to apply successful business management skills to an academic institution. From that time until my resignation from Dunwoody in 1997, I had performed as an Interim Dean of Continuing Education and Corporate Training; then as an Interim V.P. of Administration; followed by Interim Dean of Instruction; and lastly as a Special Assistant to the President. So you might wonder why Dunwoody? It is a Private, Endowed Technical College with curricula patterned very much like DeVry’s. Lecture in the morning and applicable in the afternoon. The experience as a student at DeVry paid off but also the technical and business skills of The Company.

3.6 Tom Rougier,

Lowell: I programmed the 1830 and 1830A at NADC and Pax River. The 1830 computer had 32K 30 bit memory that employed Brundy packs in its design. I agree with Rapp that we had many failures attributed to Brundy packs. I believe the successor 1830A (CP-901) did not employ Brundy packs and was much more reliable. It had 64K 30-bit core memory. I was not involved the hardware design or maintenance. So I'm only relating what I was told about the computers physical memory. Both computers employed the 1206 instruction set. The 1832A employed a more exotic addressing scheme.

4. Career Summaries - S:

4.1 Duane Sandstrom, 1958-2000.

After graduating from the University of Minnesota with a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering in June 1958, I reported for work on July 1, employee number 09545, at Remington Rand Univac, Plant 3. New grads in 1957 were offered a job for nearly every interview. In 1958 job offers were not as plentiful, but I received six offers before deciding on Univac. My starting salary was $110 per week; veterans got $113 per week. I was issued a round brass badge that seemed to weigh about ½ pound. If the badge had a black rim, it meant you punched the clock. I was part of the new hire group that did not punch a clock. The work consisted of developing tests for vacuum tube circuit boards for the Univac File Computer. The other project that was new and hiring new grads was Nike Zeus, followed by Nike X. The File Computer was manufactured in an old warehouse called Plant 3 on University and Prior. The building had no air conditioning and in order to get some air, the large sliding doors on the side of the building were left open all day. With the open doors, the plant was full of flies, especially the cafeteria. After about six months, I transferred to the test lab in Plant 2, and worked in a group of four, headed by Carl A. Johnson, doing test, evaluation, and availability of semiconductor devices. The work involved qualifying many semiconductor vendors, most of which no longer exist {Editor’s Note: in 2009}. About 1960 I moved to Plant 5 and joined George Raymond’s Reliability Engineering group. I worked on specification development, test, reliability analysis, and selection of qualified vendors for semiconductor devices used for Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) and a classified National Security Agency (NSA) project called Lightening. While in Plants 2 and 5 some of the usual off-site lunch places were Montgomery Ward dining room, the Esquire, the Town House, and if feeling rich, the Lexington. With Knox Lumber next to Plant 5, it was a place to visit during lunch to pick up supplies for a home project.

In the fall of 1960, I attended a meeting in the Plant 2 cafeteria about a new project that was starting in the Norwalk, Connecticut facility. We were given limited information about the project. After attending an interview meeting in Norwalk, I was offered a temporary assignment to work the project. About one month later, we packed some personal belongings and my wife, six weeks old son and I drove to Norwalk to begin work. The project turned out to be the Univac 1004 card processor. The design of the 1004 operated out of “the Barn” on an estate owned by James Rand, known as Rockledge, about three miles from the Remington Rand Norwalk Facility. The estate had a large stone mansion where Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the CEO of Sperry Rand had an office. It was reported that Gen. MacArthur occasionally traveled to Norwalk to use the office. The other person from St. Paul selected to work in Norwalk was I.G. (Pete) Skaar.

I started work on the 1004 in November 1961, and George Cogar was the project engineer. I considered him one of the most remarkable persons I ever worked with. An interesting web site is Select Historical Society on the left side of the first page, then select Remington Rand’s early computer research for photos and text. This web site has information on the east coast version of early computer development. The site also has information on George Cogar and the 1004. The 1004 design was completed on the summer of 1962 and manufacture was in Utica, NY. Around 8,000 of the 1004’s were built, and a fair number are still in operation today. The 1004 was a plug board programmed card reader and line printer. Punched cards with 80, 90 and 160 columns were part of the design process. I do not believe the 160-column card was ever used.

After completion of the 1004 design, I returned to St. Paul and continued working Reliability Engineering doing circuit and semiconductor component analysis and vendor selection. The large quantity logic transistors for evaluation and use were the 2N501 a PNP germanium transistor from Philco, or Sylvania or CBS and the 2N559 NPN silicon transistor from Western Electric. The 2N501 was used in the NTDS computer and related equipment and 2N559 in Nike Zeus and Nike X. Some other semiconductor vendors that were evaluated and became suppliers were: Texas Instruments, Clevite, Motorola, Bendix, Tung-Sol, Erie, Fairchild, Hughes, Pacific Semiconductor Inc. (PSI), Westinghouse, GE, Honeywell, International Rectifier, Rheem, and Sperry [Norwalk].

From 1963-65, I developed factory acceptance programs for the UNIVAC Type 1540/41 magnetic tape units and the 1532 I/O console. I was also involved in developing test software for the AN/UYK-20B system at the Point Mugu Naval Air Station. From 1965-67 I worked in the new FAA group that included the ARTS and SPAN contracts. From 1967-70, I worked various Air Force proposals and contracts defining special modifications for Cathode Ray Tube displays, printers and communication multiplexers. I became project engineer for the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC), contract at Offutt AFB in Omaha, Nebraska. AFGWC consisted of four Univac 1108 computers and numerous peripherals that were used in weather forecasting. The Offutt facility interfaced to Tinker AFB in Oklahoma for processing of weather information.

In 1970 I left Univac to join a new company called Weismantal Assoc. Inc. that consisted mostly of former Univac employees. The work involved defining electrical and functional characteristics of the central processor and system peripherals. After eight months, Weismantal went out of business and I then went to Control Data, where I worked on a study and proposal using the CDC 7600 for missile tracking on a ballistic missile defense system called Safeguard.

In 1972 I returned to Univac, and worked in a group lead by Leo Kennedy. The work involved sonar processing used in the U. S. Navy, P-3C LAMPS Mark III acoustic analyzer. I was also involved in IR&D effort to define and design of the PROTEUS advanced acoustic processor. Another development during this time was the design and checkout of a unit that would calculate a fast Fourier transform and was to be used for sonar processing. I also worked with Sperry Gyro on the Towed Array Sonar system and then became responsible for portions of the LAMPS MAD signal processor proposal.

In 1977-78, I worked in the design, writing and checkout of firmware for the Data Bus Controller used on the TCCF project at Martin Marietta, in Orlando, Florida. This project involved a number of trips to Orlando for installation and checkout of the communications controller. From 1979-81, I worked the 6977 project for the Israeli Air Force. We worked with about eight resident Israeli engineers who were on subcontract from the electronics division (ELTA) of Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI). The system involved designing, specifying, test and installation of a tele-communications system for the Israeli Air Force. After three years, the project ended and all documentation was stored in file cabinets. The project then went to an international court. Following the 6977 project, I spent many months writing various proposal sections - including the proposal for the AN/UYK-43. After award of the AN/UYK-43 contract, I was involved in project activities from checkout of the first four pre-production units to customer technical support. After checkout, manufacture of the AN/UYK-43 was transferred to Clearwater, Florida. I also did system-engineering support for various shipboard applications of the AN/UYK-43. The first major user of the AN/UYK-43 was a contract with RCA for the AEGIS ships in Moorestown, NJ.

In the fall of 1988, I was asked to go to Montreal, Canada to support a new contract during the contract definition phase at Paramax called New Shipboard Aircraft (NSA) and New Search and Rescue Helicopter (NSH) for the Canadian Forces. Work included developing avionics equipment specifications and statement of work for the request for proposal. Both NSA and NSH involved the European Helicopter Industries (EHI), EH101 helicopter for use on the new Canadian Patrol Frigate. The EH101 was to replace the ageing Sikorsky Sea King helicopter. The EH101 was a joint venture designed and built by Agusta of Italy and Westland of the UK. The three engine Agusta Westland EH101 helicopters were to be shipped to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and IMP Group Ltd. a subcontractor to Paramax would install the electronics, then paint and functionally test the aircraft before delivery to the Canadian Department of National Defense. The program manager for the NSA/NSH program was Paul Flagg. Paul believed strongly in good communication, did a great job of keeping everyone informed of the status of the tense relations between Paramax and EHI, and made people feel they were part of the contract effort. Living in Montreal provided a good experience in learning to live in a French-Canadian culture.

After returning to Eagan, I worked the AN/UYK-43 project for one year. In 1989-1990 I returned to Montreal to work with Mel Javinsky on the next proposal phase of NSA. From 1988-91, I spent about 1.5 years in Montreal in development of various NSA and NSH proposals. The NSA contract was eventually awarded to Paramax, but was cancelled within weeks after a new Canadian Prime Minister was elected.

In the fall of 1994, Unisys was awarded the Anti-Surface Warfare Improvement Program (AIP) contract for the Navy P-3C Orion aircraft. The design for the aircraft modification was done in Eagan, with actual aircraft work completed at the Lockheed facility in Greenville, SC. I developed about half of the mechanical and electrical Interface Design Specifications for the nearly 100 new equipments that were installed on the modified P-3C. The interface specifications resulted in installation drawings that were developed by the Greenville engineering group. A major component of the upgrade was the Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), from Texas Instruments, provided as Government Furnished Equipment by the Navy. AIP transitioned into Upgrade Improvement Program (UIP), which was a similar modification to the P-3C for the Royal Norwegian Air Force, (RNoAF). My work on AIP and UIP resulted in many trips to Greenville to work with the on-site aircraft modification engineers. Other P-3C modification proposals and contracts worked were the Capabilities Upgrade Program (CUP) proposal for The Netherlands and Block Modification Upgrade Program (BMUP) for the U. S. Navy.

In retrospect, in the 40 years between Remington Rand Univac and Lockheed I worked with a lot of good, capable people, too numerous to list. I am thankful I survived the 90’s and I was able to determine when I would end the life of living in a cubicle. I retired from Lockheed Martin on March 31, 2000.

My wife and I have a son and two daughters. As parents of a Delta Air Lines employee, we have the benefit of free travel that we frequently use to visit our four grandchildren.

4.2 Vernon Sandusky, 1967-1994

   Lowell, I just happened to stumble across your Legacy web site while doing a Google search on AN/UYK-20. Many of the names in the biographies are known either first or second hand to me. I don't know if I ever met you personally, but your name was certainly known to me.
   I started with RRU in June of 1967 after graduating from Iowa State University as an Electrical Engineer, was assigned to Field Engineering (Jerry Gross) and was told I would have a year of training before my first assignment. Well, the training part was right. I was crammed with the 1218, CRPI, 1232 and more in preparation for working on project Moonbeam, but the year shrunk to two months and Moonbeam disappeared. By August I was transferred to Ed Olsziewski's and Jerry Sargent's organization and on my way to Vandenberg where I worked for 7 years as part of the Titan Guidance Crew for Val Vitols. During that time I also got to work a bit on the HAP (High Altitude Program) and as a trouble shooter for SLBM (Sea Launched Ballistic Missile) Radar Tracking systems.
   Later, I took the opportunity to be a part of the startup of the Sperry Univac office in Sunnyvale where Bill Chapin was pursuing business wherever he could find it. I worked on a lot of proposals, but we failed to win any significant work and the office was closed down. However, one small bit of it called MATCALS (Marine Air Traffic Control And Landing System) survived and there was funding to pursue the initial development at a NAVELEX facility on Mare Island. I worked on this system for the next 15 years as Engineer In Charge and was proud to see it deployed in the first Gulf War. I believe that it is also seeing duty in the current war {Editor note: Afghanistan and Iraq}.
   Along the way I worked on the Athena, 1218, 1230, CP-642B, 1616, AN/UYK-20, AN/UYK-44 and AN/UYK-44 computers along with peripherals that went with each generation. I did a lot of programming over the years mostly in assembly language for diagnostics for those systems, but I never liked doing structured programming for a deliverable product. There was no fun in that, so I was mostly a hardware guy. Today when I tell people about guiding missiles into orbit with the Athena with a 1 kilobyte core memory and a 2-kilobyte rotating drum memory, they just look at me strangely. And then there were the 1218 and 1230 computers with an 8K memory chassis that took two people to remove.
Winning the first Gulf War was nice, but as soon as it was over, Congress cut Defense spending by at least 30% and you know the rest of that story. By about 1994 every Defense facility in the Bay Area [Mare Island, McClelland AFB, Moffat NAS, Oakland Army Base, Oakland Naval Supply Center and many others] were closed. There was no Defense business to be had.
   I was senior enough with 25+ years of experience that I could probably have transferred to the East Coast where some business remained, but at the age of 50, I decided that after winning many millions of dollars worth of contracts for the company during my career I figured I could do it for myself. So, I took the layoff, started my own business, and used the severance pay to support myself while it got underway. The business, Network Solutions, has been successful and this year has won the Small Business of the Year award from the Benicia Chamber of Commerce, the Above & Beyond Award from the Vacaville Chamber of Commerce and the Spirit of Solano award for businesses in Solano County.
The names I remember where those from the Field Engineering organization. I think that Curt Anderson is still around. I know that Jerry Gross passed away. Ernie Swallie is retired in Las Vegas. So many fine people worked for Univac. You could always count on them.
Thanks for your web page. I have marked it in my Favorites. Vern 

4.3 Norb Santoski, 30 years

   I'm known as The Polish Digit-meister. I'm an Electrical Engineer by schooling (UW - Madison), and also have an MBA (from the University of St. Thomas - St. Paul). I've worked in support groups during my career [both in Engineering and in Manufacturing], and have taught (part-time) many semesters at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul for courses in Operations Management, Statistics, and a course in Design of Experiments in their Master's program in Manufacturing Systems Engineering. I've also taught Statistics at Metro State University in St. Paul, and at Rasmussen College in Eagan.
   I spent 30 years with Univac/Sperry/Unisys, three years at United Defense in Fridley, and six months at Medtronic in Fridley, the latter two "gigs" as a contract Reliability Engineer. My strengths: Statistics, and Reliability Engineering. I hold a Certified Reliability Engineer (CRE) certification from the American Society for Quality (ASQ), and have taught CRE refresher courses sponsored by the ASQ. Oh, by the way, I'm a long-time Green Bay Packer fanatic, and own ONE share of stock in the Green Bay Packers Organization. Doesn't make me a bad guy!

4.4 Jack Sater, 1959-1992

   I joined Remington Rand Univac one week after graduation from South Dakota State with a BSEE in 1959. I had planned to wait a couple of weeks before starting work so I could recover from the rigors of study, but I was requested to start the following week because a large number of new people had been hired to work on NTDS and the company had set up a class on programming for all of us. At that time, there was no academic coursework leading to a Computer Science degree so the company hired engineers, mathematicians, and other science graduates and taught them how to program.
   We met for several weeks in a building on the corner of Ford Parkway and the East River Road in St. Paul, across from the Ford plant {Editor's note - the original Plant 6.} Our instructors included Dr. Brown, Mark Koschman, Clyde Allen, Walt Haberstroh, Dick VerSteeg, and Gene Gluesing. After completing the course, I was assigned to Systems Engineering to work on NTDS weapon systems. Since I had spent four plus years as a Navy Fire Control Technician prior to entering college, I was excited that I might put some of that knowledge to use at a higher paying job. However, this was a different world than the analog world that I had lived in, where communication with Combat Information Center (CIC) aboard ship was handled via sound-powered phone.
   I was assigned to work on the design and development of the Interconnecting Digital and Analog Converter (IDAC) subsystem, needed to provide the interface between NTDS and the DE Mark-9 weapon system. Along with others, I worked on the design and the test of IDAC during development and during the installation and test on board the Service Test ships. Later, I was assigned to San Diego for several months to work on the operational software for the weapon systems. I made numerous week-long voyages on board the King or Mahan while debugging software, then came back on the weekend to re-compile at Point Loma prior to going out again on Monday. I felt like I had re-enlisted in the Navy, except that now I had the equivalent rank of Lt. Commander while aboard ship and lived in Officer’s Quarters. Quite a change for a former Second Class Petty Officer!
   On one occasion, I needed to go back to Pt. Loma, CA to re-compile during the week, so my Navy partner, Lt. Commander Tex Sease got me on a Carrier On Delivery (COD) flight from the Oriskany. The only problem was that I was on board the King, so when a highline was hooked up between the King and the Oriskany to transfer supplies and personnel I was sent across on the boson's chair myself. There is nothing quite like riding across the water between two ships at sea while being tossed around. I had participated in conducting that activity often as a Tanker sailor, but had never taken the ride myself. Then when I got to the Oriskany I got to experience flying off an aircraft carrier [not catapulting off, thank goodness], with what seemed like a major dip downward as we left the deck of the carrier. Noel Stone and Arnie Hendrickson were also on that same flight. Later I was surprised to learn that we had no insurance coverage when we were on that flight or at sea!
   After spending four years working on NTDS, I was assigned to a spin-off group from NTDS to work on Air Traffic Control. The Federal Aviation Agency [now Administration] had been trying to develop a prototype of an automated air traffic control system in Atlanta, GA. Their computer and software vendor was not performing well and the FAA was looking at NTDS for help. Specifically, they needed a highly reliable computer and more sophisticated software that was a proven entity. Univac proposed the use of two 1218 mil-spec computers and the adaptation of some of the NTDS software, particularly the tracking as well as the command and control software. The FAA was put in contact with Univac by the Navy, who wanted to show Congress that their work on NTDS should continue to be funded because it also had application to civilian efforts. After submitting a brief proposal Univac was awarded the contract, and also took over the task of System Integrator from the FAA, integrating a radar/beacon digitizer from Burroughs and competing displays from Texas Instruments and Hazeltine into a prototype automated air traffic control system. My involvement with Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation began with the design and development of the prototype Automated Radar Traffic Control System (ARTS) in Atlanta, GA, the first automated air traffic control system in the world, and continued for the next 28 years until my retirement in 1992. From this humble beginning, a market was developed that continues unto today and has resulted in many millions of dollars of business for the company. Among the many firsts that were accomplished in the industry were:

  • First automated real-time flight plan processing system (File Computer)
  • First operational automated terminal system
  • First real-time cutover in an operational environment
  • First consolidation of major air traffic control facilities into a single facility
  • First operational metro-plex facility
  • First automated minimum safe altitude warning system
  • First terminal automated conflict alert warning system
  • First all-digital terminal system
  • First to win the Air Traffic Control Association’s Industry Award twice for “Outstanding Achievement in the Design and Development of ATC Systems”, once for ARTS III and again for the New York TRACON ATC system.

Two highlights that occurred during my tenure in Air Traffic Control Systems involved life-saving situations:

  1. In October 1972, the pilot of a Beech craft Baron suffered a heart attack while making an approach to Shreveport Regional Airport. The passenger, who had never flown before, managed to pull him off the yoke. The air traffic controller, using data provided by the airport’s ARTS III installation, talked the passenger and aircraft to a successful landing.
  2. In 1981, New York TRACON’s ARTS IIIA system flashed a Minimum Safe Altitude Warning alert to an air traffic controller, who was then able to direct a commercial airliner from hitting the World Trade Center in Manhattan.

I also had a couple of interesting travel situations:

  1. In 1966, I was among a group of about eight engineers and programmers who had just completed system acceptance of the New York Center Beacon Alpha Numeric (NYCBAN) system which had been relocated from the Indianapolis Center and site-adapted for the New York Center at Ronkonkoma, Long Island. At that same time, there was a sudden nation-wide strike of all airlines [I’m not sure of the cause] and we were stranded on Long Island. After a couple of days of phone calls and considering renting a couple of cars to drive back to Minnesota, we were informed to rent a couple of cars and drive to an airport in North Philadelphia where we would be picked up by a chartered aircraft owned by Kimberly-Clark Co. in Wisconsin. We drove to the designated airport and then waited several hours for the plane to show up. The pilot, who had no co-pilot, explained that he had been flying all around the country ferrying people since early that morning and so he was late in getting to us. We boarded the DC-3 late that evening and flew to Kenosha, WI where he took on fuel and we walked across a runway to get to a café that was just closing up. It was around 11 pm and we hadn’t eaten since morning, so we persuaded the café to open up again so we could get sandwiches. We took off shortly after that and arrived in Minneapolis after midnight, and while we waited to get a taxi we saw the plane take off again and head for Kenosha. I’m sure the pilot violated all the rules about flight time and having a co-pilot, but we felt fortunate to be back in Minnesota!
  2. In 1969 I flew to London and then Manchester, England to present a paper on air traffic control to the British Computer Society’s DATA FAIR ‘69. It was held at Manchester University, and the paper was to be presented twice on successive days. In order to stir up interest in the presentations, a movie of the first landing on the moon was shown. It had been borrowed from the Air Force in strictest secrecy because it had not yet been shown to the American public. It had the desired effect in attracting a large audience, with the large lecture hall filled to capacity and with people sitting in the aisles. After the first day, the Univac person who had brought it from the U.S. had to return immediately and I was given the responsibility to get it back home secretly and safely. After showing it again the next day to an even larger overflowing crowd, I returned to London to await my flight home. When I got to the airport, Pan American refused to let me take my carry-on, stating that it was too large to fit under the seat. Since I had no luggage to check, and was not about to check that film, I argued that I had flown over on Pan American and was allowed to keep it under my seat. They had a very small, narrow box that they tried to place my bag in, and when it didn’t fit they said I had to check it. I finally was able to negotiate a deal where I bought a small bag from Pan Am, transferred some of my clothing into it, and then carried both bags onto the plane. I was very relieved when I got back to St. Paul and was able to deliver it to the original carrier of it so it could be returned to the Air Force.

Finally, I would like to state that I never worked with a finer group of people than I did while at Univac, and not only the people in ATC. There was a spirit of cooperation and motivation to “get the job done” regardless of the hours spent in doing it and whoever got credit for it. Other departments shared resources unselfishly when needed and the culture for success was embedded in everyone. It was a great experience!

4.5 Bob Scholz, 1959-1993

   NTDS R&D System -After graduating from Iowa State College with a BS in Electrical Engineering I reported for work at Remington Rand Univac (RRU) in June 1959. After attending a course on computer programming I was assigned to work in Building 6 of Plant 2 rewriting a test program for the NTDS R&D Magnetic Tape Unit. It was a challenge to check out the program. Due to a lack of extra logic cards for the R&D system people would "borrow" cards from the Magnetic Tape Unit to replace failed cards in another peripheral without returning them. Then when I would try to run my test program, which had worked previously, suddenly it couldn't get the Magnetic Tape Unit to operate. Shortly thereafter spare logic cards became available and this no longer was a problem.

   NTDS Service Test Systems -Due to my successful experience rewriting the test program for the R&D Magnetic Tape Unit I was assigned to write the test program for the RD-243 Magnetic Tape Unit designed for NTDS Service Test. This program became part of the package of POFA (Programmed Operational Functional Appraisal) Tests which tested the interfaces and functions of the equipment connected to the digital NTDS computers utilizing computer programs operating in the digital computer.
   One of the features added to some Service Test peripheral equipment was duplex logic. This logic allowed a peripheral to be electronically switched between two computers. The RD-243 Magnetic Tape Unit was one of the first equipments designed and built with this duplex interface. As my test program had to test the duplex logic I was also assigned to write the formal Functional Specification for Peripheral Equipment Duplex Operation.
   I was then assigned to assist Jack Sater in writing the POFA program for the IDAC (Interconnecting Digital to Analog Converter) equipment which was the interface between digital NTDS and the analog weapon system. The IDAC equipment allowed the NTDS computer to communicate with the analog Weapon Direction Equipment (WDE) and designate targets for engagement by the missile launchers and guns. The interface at the Weapon Direction Equipment consisted of relays and analog channels. The IDAC was solid state and could operate at much higher speed than the WDE. We took the partially debugged IDAC POFA to the Naval Electronics Laboratory (NEL) in San Diego where IDAC was connected to WDE to complete the debugging. We operated the WDE relays at such a high rate that the WDE engineers said we would rapidly wear them out if we didn't change something. It was a simple matter to insert delays in the POFA program to slow things down which demonstrated the advantage of programs in a general purpose digital computer to the WDE engineers.

   NTDS Follow On - I was assigned to write the functional specification for the KCMX (Keyset Central Multiplexer) interface between NTDS and analog and digital systems. The KCMX greatly expanded the capabilities of the previous generation KSC (Keyset Central) adding many analog to digital converter channels, discrete input and output signals, and output channels for connection to digital to analog converter boxes. The KCMX allowed the NTDS computers to interface with the systems of many different ship types. This assignment required working with electrical and mechanical engineers in the hardware design department of UNIVAC. This working relationship would prove valuable in future assignments.
   In 1965 I took a short term assignment in San Diego to supervise the equipment definition group for the ASWSC&CS (ASW Ships Command & Control System) an NTDS system for antisubmarine warfare ships. The system was to be implemented on Destroyer Escorts and ASW Aircraft Carriers. The KCMX was to be a critical piece of equipment in the system. It was necessary to add a few additional functions to the KCMX to allow it to interface with some unique ASW equipment. This was easily accomplished and allowed the KCMX to be used on even more ships.

   In 1969 I managed the group of system engineers responsible for developing the hardware and software specifications for the JPTDS (Junior Participating Tactical Data System) NTDS system for small ships. JPTDS was one of the first systems developed using the new generation of powerful shipboard computers, the AN/UYK-7, developed by Univac. The AN/UYK-7 used integrated circuits and was many times more capable than the original NTDS computers. It was now possible to perform all command and control functions for small ships in a single computer. Although JPTDS wasn't implemented on any ships many of its concepts were implemented in future shipboard systems. One piece of equipment developed as part of this project was the Data Exchange Auxiliary Console (DEAC) which combined the functions of paper tape and magnetic tape in one compact unit and was utilized in future shipboard systems. I took a two year assignment as manager of a Hardware Engineering group responsible for developing a new higher performance magnetic tape unit for NTDS and a plasma flat screen display unit for Trident submarines. This assignment was part of a program to cross train hardware and system engineers in each other's disciplines so we could work better on future projects. A hardware engineer from the same Hardware Engineering department I was assigned to was assigned to my previous systems engineering. My hardware engineering assignment ended in 1974 and I joined the International Systems group to work on the system design of the land based operation centers for the Iranian Navy. It was a nice change to get back into the design of an actual system.

   In 1976 I became Project Manager for the Iranian Navy DDG 993 Shipboard Combat System which involved managing approximately 90 people. Univac utilized the U.S. Navy DLGN 38 combat system design which included a four bay AN/UYK-7 multiprocessor and modified the software to delete U.S. Navy sensitive capabilities and incorporate Iranian Navy requirements. T he system was to be implemented on four guided missile destroyers the U.S. Navy sold to the Iranian Navy. A shipboard combat system and a computer program development center were implemented in Eagan for system development and training. A training program was developed for Iranian Navy personnel who came to Eagan. The four ships had not been delivered to Iran when the Iranian government was overthrown so the U.S. Navy ended up with the very capable ships.

   In 1978 I became Manager of the International Navy department of Navy Systems Engineering managing approximately 150 people. Projects included Iranian DDG 993, German F-122, Japanese DDH-2403, Canadian SHINPADS and others. The projects involved system design, operational program development, simulation program development, test program development, system certification and integration, and training of foreign nationals.
   I continued in various management positions through the 1980s with my final system support group consisting of approximately 25 people. The group supported many projects including AN/UYK-43, Aegis, NEXRAD, AN/UYK-44 in equipment specification, equipment recommendation, technical performance monitoring, test development, test monitoring, newsletter development, and user support.

4.6 Rollie Schwitters, 1974-2007

   My career history with Lockheed Martin in Eagan and the heritage company names of Unisys, Sperry and Univac has a trail through several other company names before arriving at Sperry-Univac in Eagan, MN in 1974. I graduated from South Dakota State University in June 1965 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Electrical Engineering. My first job began with Control Data Corp. in Arden Hills, MN, in June 1965 as a data communications design engineer on the CDC 6600. Back then, there was still a lot of employment traffic from Univac going to CDC, but only one year later in August 1966, I was convinced by a former college roommate’s brother (who worked at UNIVAC) to join UNIVAC – Data Products Division in Roseville, MN.
   At UNIVAC in Roseville, I worked on the hardware design of communications line terminals and controllers for the Univac 1100 and 9000 series computers. This was also my first exposure to software development as I took company courses in FORTRAN, COBOL and 1100 assembler languages and as an automated design engineer, applied the knowledge to maintaining equation files of hardware design.

   Three years later, in September 1969, I left to work for a small company named Weismantel Associates, Inc. (WAI) doing hardware design on a new computer family and writing diagnostic software. WAI was started by Wally Weismantel – a former Univac Roseville employee. I worked for Denny Westlund who at one time was my boss at Univac Roseville. {Editor’s note: Another former Univac employee, Bob Jablonski, also worked for Weismantel for awhile.} In 1971, WAI filed for bankruptcy and I was forced to find new employment with Midwest Systems Corp. (MSC). MSC was a part of Memorex and MSC also ended up in bankruptcy. As an aside, I married my wife Jan in August 1968 who worked for CDC in Bloomington, MN. We had our first child in March 1971 and coincidently, Jan was included in a CDC layoff when WAI went into bankruptcy. So, we went from two incomes to none and we had a new baby to boot – a bit of an adjustment I must say. The MSC employment was very brief [a few months] and then I went to work as a diagnostic programmer for ATRON in Eagan which became a subsidiary of Mohawk Data Sciences (MDS) headquartered in Herkimer, NY.

   One of the founders of ATRON was Joe Stoutenburg. Joe returned to Sperry Univac in Eagan about a year before the MDS decision to close the ATRON subsidiary and consolidate it with operations in Herkimer. Joe had been President of ATRON and when he left, Denny Westlund took over. {Editor’s note: ATRON engineers also included former Univac employees Hy Osofsky, Dave Zemke, et al.} Joe was instrumental in my gaining employment at Sperry Univac in Eagan in December 1974. Denny Westlund also became an employee of Sperry Univac in Eagan at that time. So began my career in Eagan until my retirement in January 2007. As another aside, when ATRON closed, my wife was now pregnant with our second child. We couldn’t risk the closing of Sperry Univac too - so we never had any more children.

   My employment at Sperry Univac in Eagan in 1974 had an unusual beginning in that a layoff had occurred two weeks prior to my arrival [the employment offer was a month earlier] and there were many folks who questioned why I was there. Because of the layoff, the initial work assignment was unrelated to the work I had interviewed about. The work assignment was to complete development of firmware for a standardized AN/UYK-7 Non-Destructive Read-Out (NDRO) memory that had been started by an employee that had been terminated in the layoff. The NDRO job led to late night testing at the Military Equipment Test Center (METC) in the midway area of St. Paul, MN, and it seemed unchallenging compared to my last position at ATRON which was the manager of a diagnostic programming group. However, over time, I had many interesting and challenging technical and management assignments. My career highlights are described below in chronological order (oldest to most recent).
   DDG-TDS Program: During the mid to late 70’s, I was in Dick Kuhn’s Surface Combat Systems organization and developed application software for a U.S. Navy (USN) program called the DDG Tactical Data System (TDS). My responsibilities included the executive and our air control module and development included requirements analysis, design, code, test and integration. Code was written in CMS-2 and assembler languages. The DDG-TDS project had to be developed in accordance with the military SECNAVINST 3560.1 standard which had significant documentation requirements that included a PPS (Program Performance Specification), PDS (Program Design Specification) and Operator’s Manual as well as others. It was a time when automated tools were beginning to support some of the software development process to meet the documentation requirements. Some people may remember DODO diagrams and BISON isograms. This program also required support for formal verification testing of the product by the Software Quality Assurance (SQA) personnel. Verification testing was performed in San Diego at a USN test site on Point Loma that entailed several trips there. If your software worked well, this facilitated time to be a daytime tourist since most testing was performed during 2nd and 3rd shift.
   AN/UYK-44 Program: During the early 80’s, I worked for Myron Kranz in Keith Oliver’s organization as the lead programmer for the Built-in-Test (BIT) firmware and diagnostic software for the AN/UYK-44 computer development. The AN/UYK-44 was a USN program to replace the AN/UYK-20 and there was a similar program involving the AN/UYK-43 development to replace the AN/UYK-7. Both programs were competitive with Sperry Univac beating out IBM and it was during this time frame that the company name became Sperry. In the past, diagnostic software didn’t have the same development standards that application software had, but the AN/UYK-44 BIT and diagnostic software had the same standards applied with PPSs, PDSs, etc. that had to be developed and we did a pretty good job with that. The AN/UYK-44 computer had a new maintenance concept that used a maintenance processor {Editor’s note: see highlights of Lowell Benson’s career summary} to determine the health of the computer’s components to support meeting the very high detection and isolation requirements. There was a maintainability demonstration performed for the USN to prove the computer met the detection/isolation requirements. Unlike some other maintainability demonstrations, this one had high integrity about it and we passed. Following the AN/UYK-44 development, I had similar responsibilities on an Air Force Weasel Attack Signal Processor (WASP) and it too had very stringent development documentation standards.

   B-2 Stealth Bomber Program: During the mid 80’s, I became a software development manager on the Air Force B-2 Stealth Bomber program. Most of the software was BIT and diagnostic software. The program had rigorous security requirements in that it was a SAR (Special Access Required) black program. Sperry was subcontracted to Northrop to build the avionics computer for the B-2. We interfaced also with Boeing who developed the operating system. We were working with state-of-the-art technology as the B-2 was an implementation of the flying wing concept and it was evasive to radar detection. At the time, security requirements did not permit others in the building to know about the program and who the participating companies were. So, the program was called AP-10 and it was located in the basement of the Sperry Park building in Eagan. The program had a secure phone line connection that permitted us to have conversations with the prime contractor although we did not discuss classified items over the phone. Several trips were made to Los Angeles to see Northrop and when we traveled we always stayed at a hotel that was not within the vicinity of the Northrop facility. The only information you could provide to your spouse (or anyone else not on the program) was the hotel location. Years later when the program was declassified, I discovered that an individual who I knew very well from my church had worked the same program as a 3M employee. During the development, an incident occurred in which two protestors managed to get past the guards, broke into the lab area, damaged some of the hardware under development and poured blood over it. They were arrested and found guilty, but ultimately received very light punishments. There was high anxiety after the incident with concern if the protestors knew where the hardware was targeted to be used. They apparently didn’t know.

   CP-2044 Program: In 1989 and early 90’s, I was a software development manager on the CP-2044 program (also known as the USN P-3C Maritime Surveillance Aircraft AN/ASQ-212 Upgrade Program). By this time, our named had changed as Burroughs took over Sperry Corp. in 1986 and we became Unisys. The CP-2044 program was a replacement of the CP-901 computers on the USN’s P-3Cs with new mission systems. My responsibilities initially were for development of the BIT and control firmware as well as the diagnostic, acceptance test and environmental test software, but later included all of the operating system, application and simulation software as I replaced Wes Shellenbarger who became Director of Software Engineering in Reston, VA. An Engineering reorganization occurred at about that same time and then I reported to Denny Abbott who became the CP-2044 Project Engineer. The software development environment utilized state-of-the-art technologies including hardware design modeling tools, software requirements and design modeling tools, program design languages, new high order programming languages (Ada and ‘C’), simulation tools, documentation tools and management planning/status tools utilizing local area networks with workstations at everyone’s desk that interfaced to the development environment. The program pioneered a software architecture that used structured analysis and object oriented design. It was a time when software engineering transitioned to a documented process-oriented discipline. The program became the pioneer for implementing engineering process in Eagan to meet the process requirements of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The U.S. Government began to expect defense contractors to have repeatable mature software processes with proof required in process audits on new programs being bid.

   S-3B CPMU and Ada Programs: During the mid to late 90s, I was the Project Engineer for the S-3B CPMU and S-3B Ada Software development programs. I was a latecomer to the S-3B CPMU development (taking over for Tom Lunney who retired) and worked for Chuck Mills who was an Engineering Director who came from Montreal to Eagan in another Engineering reorganization. The CPMU replaced the mission system computer on the carrier-based S-3B aircraft. The hardware was developed by the Canadian Winnipeg operation; CMS-2 application software was translated in Eagan to re-target it to the CPMU and then integrated at NAWC in Warminster, PA. Management of the development was complicated by late night lab times at NAWC for the Eagan software engineers and test engineers and by the need for a detailed understanding on my part of each problem to know which software engineer to send from Eagan and which hardware engineer from Winnipeg that they needed to be persuaded to send to Warminster. However, by early 1995, the hardware was accepted by the USN and the S-3B Ada software development was initiated. The Tactical Mission Program was completely re-written in the Ada language. The S-3B Ada Program development environment went even beyond CP-2044 in utilizing a sophisticated software development environment. The development was performed in its own secure location in the building which helped to make it a productivity leader. This was a program that was also a leader in following engineering processes and was used multiple times in SEI process audits – each one completed successfully. It was also used in the successful ISO 9001 certification exercise for Eagan.

   RNLN CUP Program: My participation in the Royal Netherlands Navy Capabilities Upkeep Program (RNLN CUP) began with proposal work in late 1999 until completion of the last upgraded aircraft in June 2006. By the time this program started, we had gone through two name changes, having been acquired by Loral and subsequently by Lockheed Martin. During this time, I reported to Chuck Mills and then later to Dave Bohne – also an Engineering Director. As the Project Engineer for this program, it ultimately became the last major program of my career. T he development entailed upgrading the RNLN’s P-3C aircraft mission system with a blend of the designs from the predecessor USN AIP and BMUP programs along with some CUP unique features. T he development had a significant amount of mechanical engineering with Eagan mechanical engineers providing the leadership and installation design guidance to LMAC (Lockheed Martin Aircraft Center) in Greenville, SC who developed and documented the design. LMAC was also the installer of the upgrade. The Tactical Mission Software was based upon a BMUP baseline. The program went on to become one of Eagan’s most successful programs. The last (10th) aircraft was completed within one month of the original schedule and the program contributed significantly to the Eagan profit picture. However, the program had a strange ending in that the Dutch had a military spending budget problem and sold their P-3s to Germany and Portugal.

   There were several other programs and proposals that I worked on during my career, but the programs described above represent what I think were the highpoints of my career. The most demanding period of my career was during the S-3B CPMU and Ada Programs when more than 40 people reported directly to me in a functional organization as well as a project organization.

4.7 Tom Sinkula, 1969-1976

Most of the Career Summaries on this site actually talk about people’s careers while at Univac/Sperry/ Paramax/Lockheed (It’s still UNIVAC to me). While my career there was enjoyable and “challenging”, my lasting memories at UNIVAC are of the friends I made and all enjoyable times I had with those friends.

   My initial job interview is a good example. While in my final months at the University of Wisconsin in Madison (May 1969), I arranged for an interview with the Systems Software department at Univac. I arrived in St. Paul the day before my interview and arranged to meet a friend of mine who lived in the Twin Cities. We went out for a “few drinks”, where a “few drinks” turned into “many drinks”. The next morning came very early and, wouldn’t you know it, I was very groggy and late for my interview. I met with Dick Olson (Ole) of Systems Software, who invited me out for lunch and drinks. The thought of more drinking nearly made me sick, so I said to Ole, “I had too much to drink last night – in fact, I still have a bit of a buzz, so I think I’ll pass!!”. His response was, “I was wondering why you’re so lethargic and unresponsive. By the way, I think I’ll make you a job offer!!”. My thoughts on that? “What a great company!!
   I took the job working for Ole and was placed on the DXGN project--we were chartered to write the Realtime Executive program for the AN/UYK-7 computer. My colleagues on this project were Steve Becchetti (Dante), Joanie Wolf, Karen Tomborelli, Charlie Whiton (Chaaales), Cliff Cunningham, and last but not least, Dennis Christ. I spent most of my working days with Dennis who, like me, was a just another grunt except he had red hair. We scheduled computer time at the Military Equipment Test Center (METC) in St. Paul and spent our working days (and nights) there. More typically, we worked the second shift and would head over to Mr. Joe’s after work.
   The METC was an interesting place with a lot of interesting personalities. People like “Liquid Lenny” and Max the engineering techs. One time during a customer demo, Liquid Lenny leaned against the 1240 tape drive, pushing the lights with his shoulder causing the unit to malfunction in the middle of our demo. Lois Lane, the secretary at METC awoke me at home one morning because I had left flowers on her desk. Was she happy? No, she said the flowers were lilies which meant she was dead!
   After another late night at METC, I was awakened the following morning by Will Branning. He was wondering why I wasn’t there for my scheduled computer time. My response to him? “It’s my computer time and I’ll do what I want with it.” Good thing he had a sense of humor.
   Nothing could compare to the camaraderie instilled by Clyde Allen, our group manager in Systems Software. From the E. Tip Young semi-annual golf tournament, to our softball team, to our Christmas parties. Our department consisted of people named Dante, Chaaaales, NoNeck, Mad Dog, Lionel, Jimmy Biwabik, and the Butcher (Daryl Nelson). We published our own “UNIVAC News Release”, which kept everyone up to date on current events. We had a great group who actually got a lot of work done while having a good time. We threw a basketball team together consisting of John Watkins, George Johnson, Ed Garry, Tim Templeton, J.L. Miller, Jim Sherek, Rick Price, and others I can’t remember right now. Guess what—we took first place in the Univac B League and went on to win the Univac championship by beating all the A League teams. I’ll never forget the time Ole and I went to Washington D.C. He took me the Golden Pheasant Bar/Restaurant, where I engaged in conversation with a lovely woman (I was single at the time). As the evening wore on, I noticed she had a pistol in her purse!! When I questioned her on it, she told me she was a policewoman, and by the way, I could come up to her apartment. I passed on the invitation. Ole and I have never forgotten her or the Golden Pheasant.

   I only worked in Systems Software at Univac for seven years (1969 to 1976), but those years are as vivid in my mind as if they were yesterday. In case you’re wondering, I’m still in the IT business and still working. I’m an Oracle DBA working for Scott County in Shakopee, Minnesota. 

4.8 Tom Soller, 1959-2001

   I joined UNIVAC in June 1959 after graduating from Iowa State with a BSEE degree. At that time, UNIVAC was hiring a substantial number of new grads – among other reasons, to staff up for the Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS). NTDS was envisioned as a project to digitize the shipboard Combat Information Center. In some ways, it could be thought of as a shipboard (mobile and ruggedized) version of the SAGE system which had just completed its initial deployment as the North American air defense system.
   That group of new hires included many who turned out to be lifelong friends, including Jack Sater, Bob Scholz, Curt Hanson, Mel DeBlauw, Walt Schmidt, and Bill Geiger. The new hires assigned to NTDS systems engineering attended training in a building on Mississippi River Boulevard which was right across Ford Parkway from the Ford Motor Plant.
Those were great years, both for the employees and the company. Digital computers were a new and coming technology. The Twin Cities were a hotbed for formation of new companies in the area of digital technology. The company was growing and in the process of forming and reforming every day. There were many interesting things happening. In the interest of managing the size of this document, I will only mention a few:

  • One of the lead instructors for our new employee training class had given his two-week notice on his way to CDC.
  • At one point, Dr. George Chapin, Director of System Engineering for NTDS, gathered the new hires in the Plant 1 auditorium to give us his views on the responsibilities of a systems engineer – in those days a relatively new role. As George went through an impressive list of skills and knowledge possessed by systems engineers, I felt pretty good about being hired for this august role. This enhanced self-image quickly returned to earth, however, when George noted that none of us were qualified, but we were all that the company had to staff the department.
  • The excitement (and fear) among the NTDS staff when Hy Osofsky and his small team undertook a redesign of the initial NTDS shipboard computer (the AN/USQ-17) which was left to us by Seymour Cray on his way out the door to CDC. I believe that in today’s business environment, such a bold initiative would never be permitted. What a shame, since the new design became the AN/USQ-20, one of the most successful computers in the history of the defense industry.

   My early assignments upon joining NTDS involved writing test programs (Programmed Operational and Functional Appraisals or POFAs) for selected peripheral subsystems, including a ship-to-aircraft data link and the universal keyset. The data link effort was particularly interesting. The data link had been designed by Bell Labs under contract with the Bureau of Weapons. Needless to say the Bell Labs design team did not lack confidence in their design. However, early test runs with my POFA indicated that there were problems in their subsystem. This led to a spirited exchange of correspondence between me, a new grad right out of school, and the Vice President in charge of the Bell Labs project. This eventually led to a big meeting in St. Paul with me and my manager on one side of the table and a substantial delegation from Bell Labs on the other. Bureau of Weapons and Bureau of Ships (the NTDS contracting organization for the Navy) were also well represented. Fortunately for me, joint work in the NTDS test bed proved that the POFA was correct in its diagnosis of problems in the subsystem. There is nothing like the courage (or stupidity) of a new grad!

   After a few years on NTDS, I was assigned to the pursuit of some new business opportunities that spun out of NTDS. One of particular note was the Coordinated Ships Electronic Design Program (CSEDP). This was a paper study to define a “next generation” all-digital ship. UNIVAC was a subcontractor to Sperry Gyro with Hazeltine as the prime for the overall project. Harlen Thomesen and I led the UNIVAC part of the effort. This was an interesting opportunity to work with our corporate siblings in Great Neck. I met some really great and talented people, but suffice it to say the business culture was sure different – including engineer unions and bullhorns to define lunch hour!!

   In the late 1960’s, UNIVAC won a small contract to automate the terminal air traffic control system in Atlanta, Tahoma. This project, called Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS), was envisioned to build on our real-time systems and radar tracking expertise from NTDS. UNIVAC had implemented an earlier project for the FAA involving the printing of flight strips at the enroute centers using the File Computer, but ARTS was seen as a new market. I was assigned to the systems and software team along with several others, including Dick Paulsen, Jack Sater, Andy Westerhaus, Denny Kisby, and John Kelly. Jack Mann was the supervising engineer, Ernie Mutschler, the program manager, and Hank Donaldson, the marketer. Within the FAA, ARTS was sponsored by a small “maverick” group while FAA, overall, was strongly committed to a massive next-generation system called NAS (the National Airspace System) for which IBM had the implementation contract.

   The ARTS project was the most gratifying activity of my entire career. The total project team, including UNIVAC, subcontractors and FAA personnel from Washington, DC, and Atlanta, were sharply focused on delivering a working system. Few, outside of the team, took the project seriously. In a short while, we delivered a working system which was eventually replicated at all major U.S. terminals. I believe that ARTS played a major role in the safe operation of the air traffic control system for decades and led to a great deal of business for UNIVAC and its successors.
   I also participated in some directly related projects including a demonstration of similar technology in the Indianapolis, Indiana, Enroute system. The tragic collision of two passenger planes over Long Island, New York, led to UNIVAC's winning an unsolicited proposal to apply ARTS technology to the so-called New York metroplex [the terminals at LaGuardia, JFK and Newark.] Again, through constant evolution, UNIVAC systems played a major role in the safety of air traffic in the New York metropolitan area. All in all, I believe that the terminal ATC program was one of the most successful in the history of the company, both technically and financially.

   In the late 1960’s, after a brief period on the Defense Systems technical staff, working with Ken Fechter, Sid Rubens, and Russ Headly, I joined the newly-formed computer graphics group. The group was headed by Ken Fechter; the early staff included Lee Granberg, Dr. Dave Hansen, Chuck Kiesling, Gordy LaValley, Gerry Bestler, Roger Moerke, and Joe Kimlinger. We were chartered to consolidate all display-related development activity across both commercial and defense. The intent was to provide focus for what was perceived to be an important new growth activity for the company. Initial projects included a high speed graphic display development for NASA and the production phase of the Uniscope 300 which had been developed for airline reservation agents at such UNIVAC customers as United Airlines and Northwest.

   Within a short period of its founding, the group’s charter was expanded to include the new and growing area of digital communication products, and the decision was made to relocate the Communication and Terminals Division (C&T) to Salt Lake City Utah. The Salt Lake City location has historically been part of the Sperry defense systems operation, but C&T was attached to UNIVAC commercial. At the time of the move, I led a small team of systems engineers [including Harry Wise, Norm Priebe, Gil Braun, and Bob Schaus] who were engaged in defining the communication protocol for the new Uniscope 100 product which was then on the drawing boards.
   I moved to Salt Lake in 1971 and was involved in a broad range of systems and software development activities. Key product projects included the Uniscope 100 [one of UNIVAC's few high production volume products, and DCP/Telcon (a communication subsystem based on a processor design {Editor's Note: the An/UYK-20} from defense operations] which was the basis of a highly successful long-term communication/networking product family for UNIVAC commercial. I played a role in the planning and development of UNIVAC’s first formal digital communication architecture called the Distributed Communication Architecture (DCA). By 1976, I was back in the Twin Cities, first working in commercial operations and then rejoining Defense Systems.
   During that time, I worked on some proposals [along with Jim Olijinek, Bob Bro, Gary Anderson, Harlen Thomesen, John Fritz, Terry Armstrong, and David Kirkwood] attempting to combine our commercial communication technology with the technology from the new Semiconductor Division in major applications for the military. I was also part of the system design team on a large communication system for a foreign military organization. As a result of that assignment, I [along with Bob Jablonski, Bruce Klugherz, Dick Marchek, and many others] learned more than we ever wanted to know about dealing with a contractual relationship that had gone bad.
   In 1984, I joined the 1100 Series systems engineering group in Roseville. One of my assignments [along with Jim Palmer, Fran Haider, Dave Anderson, Frank Castaldi, and others] was to consummate a relationship with Hitachi of Japan. I learned a great deal about the challenges of breaking down natural barriers between two engineering organizations separated by geography and culture. The object of the joint effort was development of a complex large scale mainframe product. Over time, I developed a great deal of respect for the skill and dedication of Japanese engineers. Against all odds, the resulting product was a major success and people from both companies worked together as a highly integrated and effective team.
   As many will remember, the mid-1980’s brought the merger of Burroughs and Sperry that created Unisys. I had a unique opportunity to participate in the merging of the two technical organizations. While much trauma and difficulty resulted from the merger process, I would note that both engineering organizations included skillful and dedicated people whom I am proud to count among my best friends.
   During the 1990’s, the computer business changed more than it ever had before. Much of the product content was commoditized. In search of new revenue streams, companies turned toward services. While there was clear growth in demand for services, the challenge was to participate in the growth while achieving acceptable profit margins. On the product side, the emphasis turned from hardware to software. However, marketplace demand for standardization moved the industry away from proprietary software approaches. All the while, companies like Unisys were obligated to serve their customer bases, largely using proprietary products, with new technologies and services. I spent the latter part of my career working on open software architectures and technologies and on ways to leverage software deliverables through value-added services.
   I retired in 2001 after 42 years of service. Rather than one career with one company, it seemed to me that I had at least 6-8 different careers with at least that many companies. As a result there were always new challenges, the time went quickly and co-workers were generally great to work with. I couldn’t have asked for a better working career!

4.9 John Spearing, 1964-1985

   Summarizing my 21 years with Univac, Sperry Univac, Sperry Corporation, et al., is a difficult task and I'm not sure where to begin and where to end. Suffice to say, I feel very fortunate to have been with the Company during such a dynamic period of time, one that would provide growth and prosperity for many years to follow.
   Who would have guessed that winning a role in a Navy R & D project in 1963 would result in the Company becoming a major player in airborne ASW projects like the P-3C, S-3A, TSC, Japanese P-3, and Canadian Long Range Patrol Aircraft (LRPA). In my view, two major factors made that happen. First, the Company built high quality hardware tailored for those projects and, second, we had an incredibly talented pool of software developers with a work ethic that was tops in the industry.
   I joined the Company in 1964, spent a year working on A-NEW in St. Paul and then transferred to the Johnsville, PA, site when our Navy customer asked for the systems/software work to be done at Naval Air Development Center (NADC). Working side-by-side with customer personnel in their facility had its challenges, but did provide Univac employees with an immersion into systems development and integration for ASW applications that would provide competitive advantage for the Company on future projects. Following A-NEW Mod 3, P-3C production efforts shifted to Lockheed in California and our work at Johnsville focused on A-NEW Mods 4/5 along with other new contracts that we had won at NADC.
   Involvement in carrier-based Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) prototypes again provided the catalyst for our successful teaming with Lockheed on the S-3A. After spending six years at Johnsville and one more year in St. Paul, I transferred to Valencia California where S-3A software development had just begun. Being the Site Manager at Valencia from 1971 to 1973 was a great experience. Of all the exiting moments, two come immediately to mind.
   Late one night I received a call from a Lockheed representative indicating the one of our employees had "breached security" and entered the Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL) at Lockheed's Rye Canyon Facility. Come to find out one of our programmers had arrived at the entry gate a couple minutes late and had missed the Lockheed guard who had left for scheduled rounds. Not wanting to lose 20 minutes of his computer time at the SIL, he climbed the chain-link fence and went to work. The incident caused quite a stir with opinions ranging from "he should be fired" to "he should be given a medal for devotion to duty." The programmer was allowed to return to work after a stern lecture on following the rules.
   Another vivid memory of our S-3A experience at Valencia was the dreaded monthly management reviews. Once a month top management from both sides (Dick Heppe, Fred Jacques, Frank Wyche, Dom Amara, etc. from Lockheed, and Ernie Hams, Dan Brophy, etc. from Sperry Univac) would meet in Burbank to status the software development. Some called the meetings a reenactment of the gunfight at OK Corral while others felt they resembled the Spanish Inquisition. As the presenter of the software status report, I was always careful to wear my Kevlar lined suit coat and felt very relieved when the meetings were over. In retrospect, having intense management scrutiny on a regular basis was more helpful than not and a reason why we stayed focused and made it to BIS Trials on schedule.
   After returning to St. Paul from Valencia in 1973, I spent two years in Avionics Program Management and then transferred to the newly formed International Division to head the marketing function. The Company was in the enviable position of having allies of the U.S. wanting to achieve interoperability with the U.S. military through equipment standardization. As the incumbent supplier of Naval Tactical Data Systems (NTDS) computing equipment, Sperry Univac had a unique entree to reach dozens of customers around the globe, initially for their navy systems needs and then for other computer products and services. This was a wonderful business opportunity for the Company along with an exciting and educational opportunity for International personnel. Most memories are very positive, but in a few instances are better forgotten. An attempted bribe in Iran by, of all people, a customs officer was a bit unnerving as I contemplated spending time in an Iranian jail for either accepting his proposition or for refusing it; or the time we arrived late in Kuwait City and, along with another Sperry traveler, found "no room in the inn" and had to spend the night in a transient foreign workers barracks filled on that occasion with Iraqi TCNs. We took turns sleeping that night. Incidents like those made round-the-clock, tag team negotiations with the Japanese on P-3 (intended to wear us down) seem almost routine. Efforts to expand international business paid off, however, and Sperry Univac achieved a major new source of sales and profitability.
   After six years in International, I had the opportunity to lead the domestic marketing effort as we prepared to compete for the UYK-43 and UYK-44. Winning both of those two mega-projects was an incredible accomplishment for the Company. Years later, I had the opportunity to talk with members of IBM's management team that competed against us. They were stunned by losing both contracts as they were convinced there was some customer predisposition to have more than one standard computer incumbent.
   As an inexperienced new grad from the U of M in 1964, I could never have imagined the opportunities that Sperry Univac would offer to me from 1964 to 1985. Experiences and management skills gained at Sperry prepared me for the challenges of the second half of my career which began in the spring of 1985. 

4.10 Woody Spitzmueller, 1966 to 2004

- My Career at Heritage LM Companies
   My career began with a job offer at Plant 2, St Paul, then an immediate 1,200 mile drive from St Paul, Minnesota to Johnsville, Pennsylvania, along with 13 other new hires in June 1966. We were offered positions as programmers working on various P-3C related efforts at the Naval Air Development Center. On our arrival at the field site, we started six months of training in programming assembly language for the 1206/1212 computers. Verlin Stewart was the long-suffering instructor who managed to mold most of us into flying programmers. After completing training I was assigned to work for Gene McCarthy, primarily developing simulation software. Eldon Stevens was the site manager at that time. He was succeeded by John Spearing.

   P-3C Programs: In the '60s, testing of software intended for the P-3C on-board mission computer meant working on the aircraft. After spending time in the laboratory working on Mod 2/3 simulation software, I logged some 150 flight hours on various P-3C development efforts, including (primarily) Mod 7, which was a proof of concept effort for the Update II Program. We developed a drum-based, dynamic computer memory allocation scheme, permitting the airborne software suite to grow in total size beyond the limits of the 64K-sized memory of the CP-901 computer. Dave Stephenson did most of the original design work. In 1972, several of us, working under Tom Allen, spent a couple months in Eagan at Plant 8, writing the P-3C Update II competitive proposal. Unfortunately, the company lost the competition to CDC.

   Trident Program: In 1973, I opted to take am on-site job at General Dynamics Electric Boat Division (EB), in Groton, Connecticut, assisting in the development of the Trident Submarine simulation program, being prepared by EB, for the purpose of testing the Trident submarine Ship Control Application Program which was being developed in St Paul. I replaced Frank Efta who was heading back to Minnesota for personal reasons. Jim Cady and I, joined by Tom Harsh, were the Sperry team at EB for the next three years. This was an opportunity for me to get to know many of the Navy System programming staff in St Paul, headed by Bernie Gaub, as they were regular visitors to the EB site, coordinating our efforts on this major program.

   Japanese P-3C PGC/SDF Program: In 1976 I was offered a marketing support job back in Eagan, joining John Spearing and Tom Allen in the recently organized International Marketing area. John Goettl was spread too thin working a potential P-3C opportunity with Lockheed (Burbank) in Japan, so I was assigned to assist. Eagan politics severed my support role in marketing, but dealt me good fortune in Denny Stanga’s International Engineering group under Joe Stoutenburg. Denny gave me a lot of latitude in the pursuit of the Japanese software generation and development center (PGC/SDF) planned for the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) base in Atsugi, Japan. After Lockheed was forced to retreat from pursuit of the aircraft sale because of the scandal involving Prime Minister Tanaka, we opted to go it alone. We hired the uniquely qualified former Naval Attaché to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, D.C., Captain Yasuhiro Tamagawa, aka Tommy Tamagawa. I had the great fortune to be the lone gaijin on a number of trips to Tokyo with Tommy and also developed a great relationship with Lt Cdr Takefume Saito, aka Take Saito, who was hired to manage our tiny Tokyo office. Keiko Tamagawa, Tommy’s daughter, was hired as Saito’s assistant. After Lockheed’s disgrace, we approached the JMSDF directly and eventually were awarded a sole source development contract for the P-3C Program Generation Center/Software Development Facility (PGC/SDF). This was the first direct commercial contract to a U.S. firm awarded by the JMSDF. There was an accompanying FMS award to NAVAIR and Warminster NADC for the mission and supporting software, airborne equipment, training and technical support. I left the engineering group to accept a position with Bob Alexander’s International Program Management group and was given responsibility for the JMSDF PGC/SDF Program. I remained in Program Management until my retirement.
   The development task was extensive; including development of all the facility support software, integration with commercial and military hardware, and test with all the USN supplied hardware/software. We were also responsible for training in the U.S. of some 30 JMSDF personnel who were accompanied by their families. I was the mother hen, assisting Commander Watanabe with winter clothing, housing, transportation, schooling social events, etc. If you worked in Corporate Square, Building C, while the JMSDF crew was on site you probably learned NEVER to count on using the copier after hours. In Japan, we were responsible for the complete installation and formal test. This included all power systems, earthquake proofing, GFE, commercial equipment and testing.

   I will never forget the day when, with the assistance of our trading company Sumitomo, we packed up the lab in Bldg C in the afternoon, trucked it to Northwest’s air cargo facility at the airport, loaded it on a 747 freighter (using half of the aircraft capacity) and took off that evening for Tokyo. Marv Williams and I rode in the cockpit of the freighter, assisting with cooking for the crew of three and riding the jump seat for landings at Seattle and Tokyo. By the afternoon on the day of our arrival in Japan, the equipment was all spotted in the brand new test laboratory at the JMSDF Atsugi base. Art Francis was the Project Engineer and Don Stang, Tom Beaudreau, Ed Keenan, Denny Moe, and Ken Nelson were a few of the very dedicated team of development and installation engineers who supported the program. Many project staff got an opportunity to travel to Japan, and I recall that Duane Bendt and Capt Bob McCabe, USN Ret, went along for early meetings.

   S-3B AN/AYK-23 CPMU and Ada Software: Over the next several years I worked spares and other smaller programs. I eventually landed in Jim Olijinek’s organization working with Gene McCarthy again, also Dan Whitsett and Bryce Richards in the pursuit of an S-3B update program for replacement of the Co-Processor Memory Unit (CPMU). We assembled a very creative technical approach, including an alternative approach to fold the CPMU function into an updated AYK-10 S-3 mission computer, and obtained management's blessing for a cost-sharing proposal. We were successful in winning the contract and the AYK-23 CPMU Program was born; my role transitioned to the Program Manager. However, the award from NAVAIR came with a twist. The Canadian government, which used the AYK-10 on their fleet of CP-140 Maritime Patrol Aircraft and was partnering with NAVAIR in the effort, added funding to the contract, with the condition that the new equipment must be built in Canada. Fortunately, the company was well positioned to support this requirement. However, Glen Johnson had no PM on staff at Winnipeg with the necessary NAVAIR relationship, so I assumed a position working for Glen in Winnipeg managing the hardware development. I retained my day job working for Jim Olijinek in Eagan managing the classified CPMU software development program. Although we had some very exciting NAVAIR meetings early on, overcoming funding shortfalls, the program proved to be quite successful and spawned the AN/AYK-23 production in Winnipeg, which was moved to Montreal when the Winnipeg facility closed, and the S-3B Ada Software Development Program in Eagan. Tom Lunney and Rollie Schwitters were the software Project Engineers in Eagan. Fern Berard and Gary Payne were the Project Engineer and Deputy PM respectively in Winnipeg. Fred Gunn assumed the role of Program Manager when the project was moved to Montreal, and Chuck Stockman assumed the PM role for the Ada software effort in Eagan.

   F-16 Block 60: With the S-3 programs running smoothly I was nominated by Al Zettlemoyer as Program Manager of the third, and final, development effort of my career. In 1999 I was designated as the PM liaison to Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, for the F-16 Block 60 mission processor development program. The Eagan-designed mission processor would incorporate the functions of both the Block 50 mission processor (Raytheon) and HUD video processor (Elbit). The Block 60 prime contract included F-16 fighters sold to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) by LM Fort Worth with the value of $600M. The challenging part of our contract was that, in addition to a state of the art computer, we were responsible for replacing the existing hardwired avionic data bus with a 2 Giga-bit fiber optic bus. We were also responsible for providing all other LM Fort Worth Block 60 Program subcontractors, building the sophisticated new sensors on the aircraft data bus, with the electrical/optical converter we termed the Fiber Daughter Board. Denny Abbott was initially assigned the role of Project Engineer. That role eventually involved Gish Devlamick, John Corson, and Chuck Mills. The project relied heavily on the engineering optical team headed by Brian Leininger, and including Chuck Kryzak, Don Dargontina, Dean VandeWalker, and Jim Howe. John ______________ was hired to assume the FDB engineering lead. Mark Bush was the manufacturing lead and Bill Derendal headed up the test group. About a year into the development, Bob Shutt took over the program and I assumed the Deputy PM role which I retained until my retirement. Mert Horne, Jeff Parker, and even Rick Martin each had their turn as PM. The program proved to be technically challenging and a costly effort to penetrate the tactical avionics arena, but did permit us to forge a relationship with LM Fort Worth that provided follow on business opportunities such as the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program.
   I will never regret the decision to sign on with Remington Rand Univac in 1966 and pursue a career in field of military computer systems. My successes are in large part due to the talented engineering and support staff who worked tirelessly on the various programs which I was responsible for managing.

4.11 Jim Stephenson, 1981-2006; Systems Engineer and Staff Engineer at LM-MS2 Eagan

   Jim joined the US Navy in 1975, after graduating from the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN. He was commissioned as an Ensign on the US Navy via OCS, Newport, RI in December 1975, and then attended the six month Submarine School in Groton, CT. His orders sent him to Squadron-16, Pearl Harbor, HI where he attended Submarine Weapons Officer Training at the Naval Submarine Training Center Pacific Fleet (NSTCP). Jim served as the Assistant Weapons Officer onboard the USS Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602 Gold), then qualified as Weapons Officer, and was transferred to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company where he served as the United Kingdom Program Officer on the A3TK Polaris Missile Program as the US Navy Plant Rep., at NAVPRO, Sunnyvale, CA. After 5 years in the US Navy, Jim chose to enter civilian life.

   He spent 1-year as a Prototype Supervisor in a magnetic head company in Sunnyvale, CA, prior to joining Lockheed Missiles and Space Company on September 9, 1981. Jim continued to participate in the Navy Reserve, and served in three different reserve units prior to separating from the Navy as a Lieutenant Commander. Jim found his most challenging work in Naval Intelligence serving in a submarine billet attached to CINCUSNAVEUR, London.
   Jim has continued his work at LM since 1981. His 25 years at Lockheed Martin has taken Jim to four different LM facilities throughout the country, and has exposed him to many different systems engineering technologies and challenges prior to coming to Eagan, MN. These areas included Trident Missile Systems Engineering at Lockheed Missiles and Space, Sunnyvale, CA; Advanced Cruise Missile and Mission Control Aircraft at Tahoma Lockheed Aircraft Company, Marietta, GA.; and Nuclear Weapons Reliability Engineering at the Trident Submarine Base, Kings Bay, GA.
   Since coming to LM-MS2 Eagan in the Fall of 1997, Jim has worked on SQQ-89, PE on VTUAV, PE on Trident ECS(Q70), Seawolf ECS (Q70), PE on Universal Packaging IRAD, Packaging Lead on JTRS, and Systems Engineering on FURIES.

Career Highpoints:
   Riding out a Pacific hurricane on the surface of the ocean in 1978 as a new qualified Officer of the Deck (OOD). The submarine had experienced a near catastrophic event that took the submarine deeper than its operating environment could handle, and limited its speed and depth capabilities to surface operations at 3-kts speed. Jim spent 8-hrs on the bridge taking green water over the conning tower, while driving the boat back into Guam. He was commended by the Squadron-15 Commodore, and was rewarded with the opportunity to give General Jimmy Doolittle a tour of his submarine [photo right.]
   A member of the team of official “Plank Owners” for the Strategic Weapons Facility Atlantic (SWFLANT), and received a Commendation for achieving Initial Operating Capability (IOC) at the Trident Missile Facility, Kings Bay, GA. Jim Speaking with General “Jimmy” Doolittle (1979) –
Submarine Tour Onboard the USS Abraham Lincoln

   Serving as the Single-Point-of-Contact for all Nuclear Weapons issues at the Trident Submarine Base, Kings Bay, GA.
   Working on advanced nuclear weapons technologies with Sandia National Laboratories.
   Providing Naval Intelligence briefings to CINCUSNAVEUR.
   Working on various AN/UYQ-70 programs at LM.
Leading Technology Items:
   Worked with a specialized team of US Government and contractor personnel developing methodologies to ensure that nuclear weapons maintained the safest design possible preventing any possible accidental detonations or release of radiation.
   Lead a team of specialized engineers that developed shock simulation capabilities and new shock mount damping materials.
   a. James Brusoe developed “Sim901” that uses Matlab, a commercial "Matrix Laboratory" package to perform numerical computations using matrices and vectors. The LM-MS2 Eagan product predicts, with unprecedented accuracy, the isolated payload behavior experienced during barge testing.
   b. Dr. Craig Carmichael developed “UniPac” a Universal Packaging tool that uses Artificial Neural Network SW to produce refined models of rack configurations, including the most appropriate isolation mounts, and directs the output through an interface into ProE.
   c. Dave Shelander and Julie Neuman developed a proprietary mixture of enhanced shock isolation materials that improved damping from 5% to 27%.
   The developed capabilities provide LM with advantage in MIL-S-901 heavy weight shock simulation, design, and testing. The developed technologies are now being used in Q70, and have been recognized both at LM Eagan and IS&S Manassas as a discriminator for both the CEDS and the Joint Tactical Radio System proposals.
   Jim is married to a Senior Staff Systems Engineer, Debra Stephenson, also at LM MS2 Eagan. They have two sons, Mark and Scott, who attend Iowa State University.

4.12 Bernie 'Mike' Svendsen, 1959-1984

   My name is Bernard “Mike” Svendsen and I graduated in 1959 from the University of Minnesota with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. I had asked my uncle [Commander Edward C. Svendsen] if he had any thoughts about the electronics industry and where I might go to work. His comment was brief: “well, UNIVAC is doing some interesting things with computers”. UNIVAC was close to home so I joined in Aug ’59. I didn’t understand how really important and interesting it was until I recently read the book “When Computers Went to Sea”.
   The semiconductor industry was in its infancy then and the majority of my 25 years at Univac were involved in semiconductor specification, design, evaluation, testing, quality, failures, cost, availability and manufacturing at our suppliers and at our in-house facility. You might say we matured together.
   I was a member on Sperry’s Corporate Councils on Semiconductors, Standardization and Procurement.
   I worked at all of the plants in the Twin Cities and in many disciplines - Electrical Engineering, Reliability, Test, Procurement, Quality, Production, Quality Assurance, Operations Management, Bipolar Operations and the Semiconductor Control Facility.
   I joined the Semiconductor Division of Motorola in 1984 and spent 15 years as a Sales Manager, marketing and selling semiconductors.
   I retired in 1998. My wife, Joan, and I now have time to enjoy our three sons, a daughter, and their families with eight grandchildren.

B.N. Mike Svendsen

4.13 Gary Sloane, [friend of H. Wise]

Mr. Benson, it is a pleasure to write you.
I grew up in Salt Lake City; Harry Wise [and his family] lived several blocks from us. I can remember Harry getting pissed at his Saab collection on many an occasion!
I was in junior high when we moved to that neighborhood. Harry was friends with my father, Howard Sloane. My dad is a behavioral psychologist and taught for many years at the University of Utah (U of U). His father, my grandfather, used to own a company called Animalated Advertising; they built kiosks that sat in department stores and shopping malls; the gist of the idea was that a customer (who, for instance, wanted to know where the shoe department was) would walk up to the kiosk and push the 'shoes' button. The inside of the kiosk would light up, revealing a small 'lab' with a keyboard. A door would open; an animal (toucan, monkey, chicken, agouti, you name it) would come out, 'type' on the keyboard, and then the answer would light up on the display overhead. Of course the animals had nothing to do with generating the correct answer; they worked for food, which was automatically dispensed in the back after they pushed the lever on the 'keyboard'. My father wanted to recreate his father's business; Harry helped my father design the electronics for the kiosks along with Bogdan Matoga, another engineer.
I became fascinated with electronics watching this happen; and Harry would bring me bits and pieces of surplus electronics from Sperry where he worked at the time. I remember he once brought me a pill bottle full of small magnetic cores, and told me they were memory; I was absolutely spellbound with the idea that something so physical and mundane could actually remember things.
Harry, my brother Jeff, and I would frequent Salt Lake Instrument. Harry introduced us to the place; Bill Davis, the proprietor, bought surplus from the businesses and military installation in the area. He maintained an (illegal) pool of nitric acid in the back where he'd pitch in anything with gold on it. He sold anything that didn't have enough gold scrap value for the price if 0.17/pound. My first oscilloscope was an old Navy scope; it weighed 63 pounds; I paid $10.71 for it.
   Harry gave me a core memory which I still have; about 11K bits, about a cubic foot. I believe it came from an early Univac; but I have no idea which. Maybe you do; see photo at right.
{Editor's Note: The bottom right lettering is SENSE, I counted 24 tabs on both the left and right ends, thereby concluding that this was from one of our early 24 bit computers.}   I credit Harry with getting me interested in computers; I majored in computer science for several years at the U of U; and have been a programmer my entire career. I remember using the Univac 1108 at the University of Utah before they had CRT terminals. I participated in the first computer class taught in high school; we built logic circuits using relays, and wires with clips on the end!
Harry would be proud; I now collect vintage computing. I have HP2100s, PDP-8s, an HP 2116B, Sun-1, and LOTS of core memory. I have tube computing elements from IBM 705s, and much more. Like Harry, I can't believe what others throw away.
I was dismayed to hear that Harry passed away; I didn't find out until a few months ago. I was unaware of the things Harry did as an engineer; my experiences with him although formative, were limited -- I was young. Had I realized his involvement in the industry I most certainly would have dogged him for even more stories than I already was privileged to listen to!
I last saw Harry in about 2002; one day I got a phone call; "Gary, I'll be in the San Diego airport tomorrow at 8:30; pick me up, drive me to my meeting and we can talk!" I did; it was great to see him. 

4.14 Larry L. Schmidt, 1963 -

BSEE 1962 University of Nebraska - A short history of UNIVAC employment
I joined Univac Defense systems in the fall of 1963 and was assigned to Bob Hanson's test software group. My first project was to write a POFA for the triplexes portion of the recently expanded KCMX. I wrote this in assembly language to run on the 1st 1218 computer.
I was next assigned as help-mate to Ed Nelson for specification development and testing of Army War room equipment for the Pentagon. The principle activity was to create tests and witness acceptance testing of the Stromberg Carlson Situation display.
I then became aware of persons being sought by Dr. George Chapin desiring to transfer to San Diego to participate in the ASWSC&CS program. After interviews by Ray Kott, Gordy Ericson, and Bob Scholz, I came on board the program in early 1965. Bob was on the project as a temp and was to return to the home office when a permanent San Diego project personnel could be obtained. I therefore had a phase in period with Bob and then he returned to his home office.
As Cdr Carl Drenkard [ASWSC&CS Navy Project Officer] relates in his IEEE article of this project, this was an NTDS Spin Off designed to enhance ASW activities in CIC by incorporating data from own-ships sonar/off-ships-sonar [via Link 11,] correlating target info; and commanding ASW weapons. We were to use or modify what we could of NTDS software. Equipment, however, utilized the next generation computer, CP-642B, [AN/USQ-20B] and next generation Hughes Display consoles [AN/UYA-4].
The most interesting task that came my way was to determine at what digital sample rate to buffer output train and elevation data to the ASROC launcher from a digital computer. It had been already determined by Harvey Kloehn [civil service] of the Navy Project Office that an alternate digital electrical path could be established which by-passed the MK 53 analog Attack console of the MK 113 ASROC system. The only question was: at what digital rate should date be outputted? Hence, provision was made for me to conduct tests using the ASROC Launcher simulator at Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), Pasadena. I devised a digital test program which incorporated worst case firing geometry and discovered that when you increased the digital output sample rate to 125 sps, this rate was well into the zone where the launcher responded just as though it was being driven by its companion analog computer - the MK 53 Attack console. The foregoing was never mentioned in Cdr Drenkard's IEEE article regarding ASWSC&CS. Nor was it mentioned in Capt. David L. Boslaugh's book; "When Computers Went to Sea." It seems logical to postulate that at some point in DE 1047/1049 ASWSC&CS Sea both Harvey Koehn and Cdr. Drenkard went aboard with a tricked up version of the software; turned the requisite by-pass switches; and watched as the launcher moved under direct control of the 642B.

In about 1968, I subsequently joined in with other departed UNIVACers such as Dr. Chapin, Paul Hensel, Ralph Hileman, Wendel Ericson at Litton Data Systems; where C&CA system design studies were in progress on the DDX Program. When that program received its formal name [DD 63 Spruance class ships] and Litton won the contract, I was picked to head up their Command and Decision Subsystem (CDSS) as Program Manager. Just as the ASWSC&CS Program was the Spin Off of NTDS, the DD 963 C&CS was the Spin Off of ASWSC&CS.

4.15 Dale Suckstorff, 1978 - 2011

A 33 year career with Sperry/Unisys/Lockheed Martin.  Dale left a HS teaching job to apply for a programming position developing software 'apps' for US Navy systems.  A 33 year career of various engineering and management positions is detailed in his career summary.